Campbell Essential Biology Chapter 19 Test

What is a population?

A) a group of individuals of a single species that occupy the same general area and all the abiotic factors that affect them
B) a group of individuals of a single species that occupy the same general area
C) a group of organisms that occupy the same general area
D) all of the organisms of a single species existing at a particular time

B) a group of individuals of a single species that occupy the same general area

Which of these is a characteristic of Type I survivorship?

A) low survivorship for the very young
B) most individuals survive to older age intervals
C) survivorship is constant over the lifespan
D) survivorship is high for the few individuals that survive to a certain age

B) most individuals survive to older age intervals

Type I survivorship curves are typical of species that exhibit ______.

A) many offspring and good parental care
B) an intermediate number of offspring and an intermediate level of parental care
C) many offspring and poor parental care
D) few offspring and good parental care

D) few offspring and good parental care

Which of these best describes Type II survivorship?

A) high survivorship for the very young
B) survivorship is constant over the lifespan
C) most individuals survive to older age intervals
D) survivorship is high for the few individuals that survive to a certain age

B) survivorship is constant over the lifespan

Which of these best describes Type III survivorship?

A) most individuals survive to older age intervals
B) high survivorship for the very young
C) survivorship is constant over the lifespan
D) survivorship is high for the few individuals that survive to a certain age

D) survivorship is high for the few individuals that survive to a certain age

Opportunistic species typically ______.

A) exhibit a Type I survivorship curve
B) are very long-living
C) reach sexual maturity slowly
D) have a large number of offspring

D) have a large number of offspring

Species that exhibit an equilibrial life history typically ______.

A) exhibit a Type III survivorship curve
B) exhibit a Type II survivorship curve
C) have a large number of offspring
D) have long lives

D) have long lives

If there are 500 oak trees in a forest covering 50 square kilometers then the population density is

A) 50 trees per square kilometer
B) 5 trees per square kilometer
C) 100 trees per square kilometer
D) 10 trees per square kilometer

D) 10 trees per square kilometer

In an ideal, unlimited environment, a population’s growth follows a(n) ______ model.

A) hypergeometric
B) geometric
C) exponential
D) logistic

C) exponential

In an ideal, unlimited environment, what shape does a population’s growth curve most closely resemble?

A) ∪
B) ∧
C) J
D) S

C) J

If a population’s growth rate decreases as the population size approaches carrying capacity, the population’s growth follows a(n) ______ model.

A) logistic
B) hypergeometric
C) geometric
D) exponential

A) logistic

In a population that is following a logistic growth pattern, what shape does the population’s growth curve most closely resemble?

A) S
B) J
C) ∪
D) ∧

A) S

______ is the maximum population size that a particular habitat can support.

A) Carrying capacity
B) Crash point
C) Intrinsic rate of increase
D) Intrinsic population size

A) Carrying capacity

According to the logistic growth model, what happens to a population when the size of the population reaches carrying capacity?

A) The growth rate remains unchanged.
B) The population crashes.
C) The population begins to decrease in size.
D) The growth rate is zero.

D) The growth rate is zero.

Competition among individuals of the same species is ______ competition.

A) interspecific
B) intraspecific
C) extraspecific
D) endospecific

B) intraspecific

Which of these factors operates in a density-dependent manner?

A) flood
B) blizzard
C) volcanic eruption
D) food supply

D) food supply

Over time, the populations of most species ______.

A) increase rapidly, crash, and never recover
B) fluctuate
C) continuously increase
D) exhibit boom-and-bust cycles

B) fluctuate

An unexpected freeze that kills a population of chipmunks is an example of ______.

A) a density-dependent factor
B) a natal effect
C) an intrinsic factor
D) a density-independent factor

D) a density-independent factor

The Endangered Species Act aims to help protect species that ______.

A) are in danger of extinction
B) compete with invasive species
C) have suffered significant habitat destruction
D) are economically valuable

A) are in danger of extinction

The red-cockaded woodpecker, an endangered species, is dependent upon ______ for maintenance of its source habitat.

A) fire
B) corn snakes
C) floods
D) thick vegetation at least 15 feet in height

A) fire

You arrive back in the United States after having visited a foreign country located on another continent. The customs agent stops the person in front of you and confiscates the fruit basket this person is bringing home. Being the knowledgeable person you are, you calmly explain to your enraged fellow traveler that the reason for the detainment is that the fruit basket may be ______.

A) contaminated with CFCs that will damage the ozone layer above North America
B) contaminated with sufficient DDT to cause serious harm to anyone who eats the fruit
C) carrying a non-native species that could damage North American ecosystems
D) carrying endangered fruit

C) carrying a non-native species that could damage North American ecosystems

Non-native species can have important effects on biological communities by ______.

A) preying upon native species
B) doing all of the above
C) reducing biodiversity
D) competing with native species for resources

B) doing all of the above

Examples of invasive species include ______.

A) kudzu and red-cockaded woodpeckers
B) cod and Chilean sea bass
C) snowshoe hares and kudzu
D) cheatgrass and Burmese pythons

D) cheatgrass and Burmese pythons

The intentional release of a natural enemy to attack a pest population is called _____.

A) coevolution
B) biological control
C) integrated pest management
D) sustainable resource management

B) biological control

The use of the Indian mongoose to control rat populations

A) shows why integrated pest management usually fails.
B) is an example of how coevolution makes biological control difficult.
C) became a disaster when the mongoose turned out to be as invasive as its target.
D) shows how effective biological control can be.

C) became a disaster when the mongoose turned out to be as invasive as its target.

Most crop pests ______.

A) have an equilibrial life history
B) have an opportunistic life history
C) exhibit type I survivorship
D) consist of long-lived individuals

B) have an opportunistic life history

Integrated pest management ______.

A) advocates total eradication of pest species
B) advocates mixed-species plantings and rotating crops
C) favors overwhelming a pest with chemical pesticides
D) aims to keep pest populations on an exponential growth curve

B) advocates mixed-species plantings and rotating crops

Throughout most of human history, human population size _____.

A) was at carrying capacity
B) grew very slowly
C) skyrocketed
D) showed boom and bust cycles

B) grew very slowly

In most developed countries, overall population growth rates ______.

A) are high, so the population is growing rapidly
B) are near zero, so the population size is fairly stable
C) are low, so the population is declining
D) are high, so the population size is fairly stable

B) are near zero, so the population size is fairly stable

In most developing countries ______.

A) birth rates equal death rates, so population size is fairly stable
B) birth rates are much higher than death rates, so the population is growing rapidly
C) birth rates are lower than death rates, so the population is growing rapidly
D) birth rates are lower than death rates, so the population is declining

B) birth rates are much higher than death rates, so the population is growing rapidly

What will be the approximate shape of the age-structure diagram of a rapidly increasing population?

A) a rectangle
B) an inverted pyramid
C) an hourglass
D) a pyramid

D) a pyramid

A study of the human ecological footprint shows that ______.

A) A human population size will soon crash
B) we have already overshot the planet’s capacity to sustain us
C) Earth can sustain the current population, but not much more
D) Earth can sustain a population about double the current population

B) we have already overshot the planet’s capacity to sustain us

The ecological footprint of the United States ______.

A) Is lower than the global average
B) is about the same as the global average
C) shows that Americans consume a disproportionate amount of food and fuel
D) shows that its population size is increasing slowly

C) shows that Americans consume a disproportionate amount of food and fuel

The figure below shows population cycles of snowshoe hare and lynx. Recent field studies suggest that the most likely explanation for these cycles is ______.

A) boom and bust cycles in lemming populations
B) excessive predation of snowshoe hares
C) periodic winter storms
D) nearly unlimited food for hares during the summers

B) excessive predation of snowshoe hares

When did male fur seals reach carrying capacity?

A) 1950
B) 1915
C) 1930
D) 1940

D) 1940

This graph represents three different populations. Use it to answer the following questions.

Which population is growing at the fastest rate?

A) Population C
B) Population A
C) Population B

B) Population A

This graph represents three different populations. Use it to answer the following questions.

If all populations occupy different areas that are approximately the same size, which population will have the lowest density after three years?

A) Population B
B) Population C
C) Population A

B) Population C

Which of the following choices matches this figure?

A) In some species of lizards and rodents, survivorship is constant over the life span.
B) During “mating frenzies,” male and female squid aggregate and release hundreds of eggs and sperm into the water column. The fertilized eggs are often quickly preyed on by fish.
C) Dolphins produce only single offspring at a time and provide parental care for many months.
D) The century plant grows for many years and reproduces and releases hundreds of seeds just once before it withers and dies. Because of the dry desert environment in which it lives, many of the seeds do not survive or are eaten.

C) Dolphins produce only single offspring at a time and provide parental care for many months.

Michigan’s Isle Royale is located in Lake Superior and is 45 miles long and 9 miles wide. Ecologists estimate that the moose population has been on the island since around 1900. The wolf population, on the other hand, has only been there since the winter of 1949. The conditions had to be just right for the lake to freeze and the weather to be calm enough for the first wolves to make the passage over to the island. When the wolves arrived, they were greeted with a large moose population that had no predators. The moose population was at a dangerously high level, but was kept in check by the arrival of the wolves. This “harmonious” pattern continued for at least 20 years.

In 1982, the wolf population suddenly crashed. The problem was a new canine virus. This virus surfaced around the world in 1978 and spread rapidly in about six months. Infected animals can survive, but they have to be treated immediately. Ecologists hypothesized that the virus arrived on the island carried on the shoe of a human traveler. The wolf population decreased from 50 to 14 individuals in a year. While the wolf population dropped, the moose population increased. However, the winter of 1996 was extremely harsh and the moose population experienced a major crash. More than 500 animals died during the winter months, reducing the population to less than 800 animals.

What most likely happened when the wolves first arrived on the island?

A) The moose population crashed because of the introduction of a predator.
B) The wolf population was at its carrying capacity.
C) The wolf population increased exponentially.
D) The moose population increased exponentially.

C) The wolf population increased exponentially.

Michigan’s Isle Royale is located in Lake Superior and is 45 miles long and 9 miles wide. Ecologists estimate that the moose population has been on the island since around 1900. The wolf population, on the other hand, has only been there since the winter of 1949. The conditions had to be just right for the lake to freeze and the weather to be calm enough for the first wolves to make the passage over to the island. When the wolves arrived, they were greeted with a large moose population that had no predators. The moose population was at a dangerously high level, but was kept in check by the arrival of the wolves. This “harmonious” pattern continued for at least 20 years.

In 1982, the wolf population suddenly crashed. The problem was a new canine virus. This virus surfaced around the world in 1978 and spread rapidly in about six months. Infected animals can survive, but they have to be treated immediately. Ecologists hypothesized that the virus arrived on the island carried on the shoe of a human traveler. The wolf population decreased from 50 to 14 individuals in a year. While the wolf population dropped, the moose population increased. However, the winter of 1996 was extremely harsh and the moose population experienced a major crash. More than 500 animals died during the winter months, reducing the population to less than 800 animals.

The virus introduced to the island in 1982 that reduced the wolf population is an example of ______.

A) intraspecific competition
B) a density-independent factor
C) a density-dependent factor
D) acclimation

C) a density-dependent factor

Michigan’s Isle Royale is located in Lake Superior and is 45 miles long and 9 miles wide. Ecologists estimate that the moose population has been on the island since around 1900. The wolf population, on the other hand, has only been there since the winter of 1949. The conditions had to be just right for the lake to freeze and the weather to be calm enough for the first wolves to make the passage over to the island. When the wolves arrived, they were greeted with a large moose population that had no predators. The moose population was at a dangerously high level, but was kept in check by the arrival of the wolves. This “harmonious” pattern continued for at least 20 years.

In 1982, the wolf population suddenly crashed. The problem was a new canine virus. This virus surfaced around the world in 1978 and spread rapidly in about six months. Infected animals can survive, but they have to be treated immediately. Ecologists hypothesized that the virus arrived on the island carried on the shoe of a human traveler. The wolf population decreased from 50 to 14 individuals in a year. While the wolf population dropped, the moose population increased. However, the winter of 1996 was extremely harsh and the moose population experienced a major crash. More than 500 animals died during the winter months, reducing the population to less than 800 animals.

The harsh winter that led to the death of many moose in 1996 is an example of ______.

A) acclimation
B) a density-independent factor
C) a density-dependent factor
D) a trigger for logistic growth

B) a density-independent factor

Michigan’s Isle Royale is located in Lake Superior and is 45 miles long and 9 miles wide. Ecologists estimate that the moose population has been on the island since around 1900. The wolf population, on the other hand, has only been there since the winter of 1949. The conditions had to be just right for the lake to freeze and the weather to be calm enough for the first wolves to make the passage over to the island. When the wolves arrived, they were greeted with a large moose population that had no predators. The moose population was at a dangerously high level, but was kept in check by the arrival of the wolves. This “harmonious” pattern continued for at least 20 years.

In 1982, the wolf population suddenly crashed. The problem was a new canine virus. This virus surfaced around the world in 1978 and spread rapidly in about six months. Infected animals can survive, but they have to be treated immediately. Ecologists hypothesized that the virus arrived on the island carried on the shoe of a human traveler. The wolf population decreased from 50 to 14 individuals in a year. While the wolf population dropped, the moose population increased. However, the winter of 1996 was extremely harsh and the moose population experienced a major crash. More than 500 animals died during the winter months, reducing the population to less than 800 animals.

During a one-year study, a graduate student attempted to count the wolves and moose on the island. He estimated that there were 950 moose and 120 wolves. How many organisms, populations, and species were included in this study?

A) organisms = 2; populations = 2; species = 1,070
B) organisms = 2; populations = 1; species = 2
C) organisms = 1,070; populations = 2; species = 2
D) organisms = 1,070; populations = 1; species = 2

C) organisms = 1,070; populations = 2; species = 2