Business Management Final Essay

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A manager is considered efficient and effective if the manager
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reaches goals and does not waste resources
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According to Katz , applying specialized knowledge and expertise to work-related techniques is a characteristic of
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technical skills
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According to Katz , technical skills involve
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applying specialized knowledge and expertise to work-related techniques
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According to Katz, human skills are required for
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working with individual and group interests
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Becky’s department has seen a number of layoffs in the last two months, and employee morale is very low. This is affecting the work atmosphere and productivity is declining. In this situation, the department manager’s primary task will be
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influencing
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Jacob, an upper-level manager, recently saw a project fail because he did not establish objectives for all important organizational areas during the initial stages. Jacob made a mistake during the ________ stage of the management process.
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planning
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Jonah has been team manager for eight years now. In that time, his performance has remained consistently satisfactory, but there have been no drastic changes. A junior colleague was recently promoted to department head and Jonah now reports to him. Jonah’s career can best be described as being in the ________ stage.
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plateauing
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Management principles are considered to be universal because
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the principles of planning, organizing, influencing, and controlling are the same across organizations
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Nathan is the plant manager for Arwen Manufacturing. Though he does not work hands-on on the manufacturing process, he needs to know the ins and outs of the processes, so that he can guide his employees effectively and step in to help if necessary. According to Katz, this involves developing Nathan’s ________ skills.
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technical
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Neil is the plant manager at Serieux Manufacturing. He has just been given the production targets for the month and has determined the activities necessary to achieve these. He now has to decide who will perform the various activities best so that the output will be maximized, and must assign the activities to those workers. Neil is performing the ________ function of management.
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organizing
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People in the ________ stage may find it difficult to maintain prior performance levels, perhaps because they have lost interest in their careers or have failed to keep their job skills up-to-date.
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decline
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People-related activities within an organization include
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consulting when making decisions
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Sarah’s team is relatively new and inexperienced. As the manager, she needs to motivate the team and encourage them to cooperate with each other to perform better. According to Katz, this involves using ________ skills.
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human
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The primary task of management is to encourage individual activity that will
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lead to reaching organizational goals
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Which of the following is an error managers make during the controlling stage of management?
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not monitoring progress in carrying out plans
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Which of the following is an example of a people-related activity in an organization?
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Anoia Systems awards employees who perform well each month.
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Which of the following statements is true for the management function?
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It reaches goals by working with and through people.
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________ is the management function through which managers compare present performance to preestablished performance standards.
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Controlling
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________ can be defined as guiding the activities of organization members in appropriate directions.
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Influencing
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________ includes determining tasks and groupings of work. It should not be rigid, but adaptable and flexible to meet challenges as circumstances change.
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Organizing
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________ refer to all the organizational assets available for activation during the production process.
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Resources
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________ resources refer to the ingredients used directly in the manufacturing of products.
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Raw material
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________ skills involve determining how to use personnel and resources to accomplish a task efficiently
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Short-term planning
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An organization that wants to retain an employee may need to assist that employee’s spouse in his or her career development as well.
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True
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As one moves from lower-level management to upper-level management, conceptual skills become more important and technical skills less important.
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True
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In an organization, short-term planning, clarifying objectives of jobs in organizations, and monitoring operations and performance are task-related activities.
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True
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Influencing is the process of assigning the tasks developed under the planning function to various individuals or groups within the organization.
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False
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Management jobs vary but management principles are universal. The basic ingredients of successful management are applicable to all organizations.
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True
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Planning is concerned only with organizational success in the short term, while organizing is concerned with the more distant future (long term).
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False
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The four basic management functions are planning, organizing, influencing and controlling.
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True
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Abraham Maslow believed that managers must understand the physiological, safety, social, esteem, and ________ needs of organization members.
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self-actualization
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According to Gantt, the role of a manager is to ________.
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make it in employees’ interests to accomplish tasks
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F.W. Taylor’s approach was unpopular with workers and unions because they feared that reengineering their jobs would lead to ________.
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workers losing their jobs
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Hawthorne study results helped managers to see that ________.
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understanding what motivates employees is a critical part of management
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In a learning organization, every organization member should understand his or her own job and how the jobs fit together to provide final products to the customer. This is known as ________.
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systems thinking
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In Fayol’s principles of management, “decentralization” implies that ________.
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the importance of the subordinate role should be increased
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Jane, a manager in a soda company, believes that the classical approach to management will help her to schedule her employees’ tasks and handle people better. But using only the classical approach may not be the ideal approach because ________.
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it does not adequately emphasize the human variables in the production process
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Jenna and two of her college friends recently initiated their own start-up. Jenna’s in charge of recruiting people and personnel management. She hasn’t had any experience in managing people and wants to establish a clear approach to management. However, she notices that the decisions she makes often vary depending on the people and situations. She realizes that the way she manages programmers needs a different outlook from the way she manages accountants. The most appropriate approach that Jenna could use in this scenario is the ________ approach.
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contingency
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Lower-level management analysis concentrates on the “one best way” to perform a task. The process of finding this “one best way” is known as ________.
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scientific management
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One of the general principles of management explained by Fayol is “unity of command.” What does this principle mean?
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Workers should receive orders from only one manager.
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Regardless of the weather, a television’s screen, controls and other parts must function in a predetermined way if the television as a whole is to exist and serve its purpose. This is an example of a(n) ________ system.
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closed
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The Gilbreths aimed to increase worker efficiency by ________.
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reducing the number of movements taken to accomplish a task
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The Hawthorne Studies sparked the ________, a people-oriented approach to management in which the interaction of people in organizations is studied to judge its impact on organizational success.
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human relations movement
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The scientific method dictates that scientists must test the model by performing an experiment on ________.
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the actual system to see whether the effects of changes predicted using the model actually occur when the changes are made
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The ultimate objective of the human relations approach is to ________.
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study the interaction of workers in organizations to enhance organizational success
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The ________ approach to management emphasizes “if-then” relationships: “If” this situational variable exists, “then” a manager probably would take this action.
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contingency
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Which of the following did Gantt advocate in addition to Taylor’s piece-rate compensation system for workers?
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a bonus for overproduction
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Which of the following is a characteristic of situations in which management science techniques are applied?
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Managers need help analyzing a large number of variables.
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Which one of the following conclusions was drawn by the experimenters from the bank wiring observation room experiment?
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Social groups in organizations could effectively exert pressure to influence individuals to disregard monetary incentives.
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A closed system is not influenced by, and does not interact with, its environment.
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True
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A drawback of the classical approach is that it does not adequately emphasize human variables.
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True
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Abraham Maslow was a major contributor to the human relations movement in management.
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True
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Frederick W. Taylor is commonly called the “father of scientific management.”
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True
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A firm that is involved in assisting community organizations dedicated to education, charities, and the arts is conducting a social responsibility measurement in the ________ area.
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social investment
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In building a sustainable organization, management should strive to make the organization sustainable in three areas. Which of the following areas is the organization focusing on when it emphasizes performing behavior akin to protecting natural resources like air, water, and land?
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the environment
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In which of the following stages of performing social responsibility activities does a manager lead, communicate, motivate, and work with groups to attain the organization’s social responsibility objectives?
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influencing
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Managers can fulfill their social obligation towards consumers by ________.
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providing safe products
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Managers can fulfill their social obligation towards government agencies by ________.
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abiding by the laws
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Managers who have successfully increased the value of the organization have fulfilled their social obligation towards ________.
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stockholders
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Roger believes in the statement, “what you give, you receive.” He shows respect to everyone he knows and meets every day and expects them to show him respect. Roger’s behavior is consistent with ________.
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the golden rule
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The term ________ emphasizes that managers should focus on building organizations that are sustainable in economic, environmental, and societal activities.
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triple bottom-line
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Which of the following activities indicates that the organization is conducting a social responsibility measurement in the quality-of-life area?
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dealing fairly with employees and customers
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Which of the following arguments provided by Milton Friedman suggests that corporate social responsibility may be unethical?
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Corporate social responsibility compels managers to spend money on some individuals that rightfully belongs to other individuals.
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Which of the following is the primary function of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission?
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It investigates and conciliates employment discrimination complaints that are based on race, sex, or creed.
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Which of the following propositions of the Davis Model of Corporate Social Responsibility states that business cannot be expected to completely finance activities that may be socially advantageous but economically disadvantageous?
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Proposition 4: The social costs related to each activity, product, or service shall be passed on to the consumer.
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Which of the following was passed amid outcries of public outrage over outrageous management practices discovered at several companies including Enron, WorldCom, and Tyco?
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Sarbanes-Oxley Act
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________ can be categorized as “outside” stakeholders of an organization.
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Customers
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________ is the degree to which a person or entity can meet its present needs without compromising the ability of other people or entities to meet their needs in the future.
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Sustainability
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A code of ethics is an informal statement that organizations release to help its employees obtain a basic understanding of ethics.
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False
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According to the concept of corporate social responsibility, managers should regard societal goals as more important than organizational goals.
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False
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A positive or negative assessment of members of a group or their perceived attributes is known as ________.
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stereotype
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As the only female copywriters in a team of twenty-three, Shania and Taylor are always a part of client meetings and public company occasions. This is an instance of ________.
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tokenism
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Bill manages a large department with employees from diverse cultural backgrounds. A review of his management style revealed that Bill’s informal way of speaking to employees is offensive to some people, who come from cultures where formality and respect are the norm between different organizational levels. This indicates that Bill is at the ________ stage of progress in managing a diverse workforce.
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conscious incompetence
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In an organization, the group of people who hold most of the positions that command decision-making power is known as the ________.
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majority group
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In an organization, the group of people who lack critical resources, acceptance, and social status is known as the ________.
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minority group
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The approach to cultural diversity that most closely parallels affirmative action policies is the ________ approach.
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righting-the-wrongs
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The major weakness of the ________ approach is that individuals apply the approach from their own particular frame of reference without knowing the cultural expectations, traditions, and preferences of the other person.
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golden rule
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Which of the following is one of the demographic facts established in the Hudson Institute report?
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the pool of young workers entering the workforce will shrink
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A Belgium-based multinational company hires the best managers for its operations, regardless of the location of those managers. This company is said to have a(n) ________.
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geocentric attitude
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A Canada-based shoe manufacturing company in Malaysia has hired a Malaysian manager to manage it, because the company’s CEO believes that the manager will understand the situation and manage the plant better than any foreign manager. This company is said to have a(n) ________ attitude.
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polycentric
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A company investing in international operations is known as the ________.
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parent company
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A partnership formed by a company in one country with a company in another country for the purpose of pursuing some mutually desirable business undertaking is known as a(n) ________.
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joint venture
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A(n) ________ organization considers national borders to be inconsequential to its operations, with ownership, control, and management being from many different countries.
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transnational
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Citizens of a country who work in a foreign-based organization located in their own country are known as ________.
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host-country nationals
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Countries that highly promote ________ have citizenry that tends to emphasize, expect, and accept more autocratic than democratic leadership.
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power distance
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France is a country where employees tend to follow whatever their managers say. They do not question the authority of their managers. Which of the following statements can be deduced from this information?
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France is a country with high power distance.
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Hugh is an American citizen currently living in Denmark. He works for a company that has its headquarters in France. He is a(n) ________.
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third-country national
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Japan has a society that values competitiveness and assertiveness over nurturing others and improving their quality of life. The people believe that success and wealth are very important. Japan is said to have a society that ________.
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emphasizes masculine values
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Which of the following is the simplest stage of multinationalization?
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exporting the organization’s product to foreign countries
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________ in multinational corporations requires that standards be set, performance be measured and compared to standards, and corrective action be taken if necessary.
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Controlling
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A(n) ________ is an individual who identifies, evaluates, and exploits opportunities.
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entrepreneur
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Bryan has started a nonprofit organization that places the visually impaired in suitable jobs. What type of entrepreneurship is Bryan displaying?
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social entrepreneurship
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Entrepreneurs are most likely to exploit an opportunity when ________.
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they perceive that they have the support of important stakeholders
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Jose has successfully initiated a business of repairing cars. However, without immediate income to sustain the business, he may have to shut shop. His friend, Adam, invests in the company and gives the company a much-required boost. Adam is an example of a(n) ________.
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angel investor
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Martha has recently created a Facebook account. She also understands that she can utilize this to advertise her growing recycling business. This is an example of ________.
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entrepreneurial alertness
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When Nintendo develops and markets the Wii gaming system, it is an opportunity that has arisen from a ________.
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new product or service
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When Tyson Chicken raises chicken for commercial use without using antibiotics, which type of opportunity is this?
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new methods of production
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Which of the following is the most frequently used type of corporate entrepreneurship?
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sustained regeneration
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Which type of opportunity is Citibank pursuing when it provides services in China?
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new geographical markets
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________ is a type of evaluation that helps entrepreneurs understand whether an idea is practical.
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Feasibility analysis
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________ refers to the identification, evaluation, and exploitation of opportunities.
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Entrepreneurship
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A firm’s ________ refer(s) to what it exists to do, given a particular group of customers and customer needs.
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organizational purpose
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The affirmative purpose of planning is to ________.
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The correct answer is: increase the degree of organizational success
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The primary management function is ________.
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planning
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The protective purpose of planning is to ________.
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minimize risk by reducing the uncertainties surrounding business conditions
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When setting objectives, managers should state objectives as specifically as possible because ________.
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it ensures that employees have explicit directions for what they should do
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Which of the following steps in the planning process should precede all the others?
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list alternative ways of reaching objectives
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The final responsibility for organizational planning rests with the firm’s chief executives.
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True
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A disadvantage of brainstorming is that ________.
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it wastes the group’s time on wildly impractical ideas
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An advantage of brainstorming is that ________.
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it supports the expression of as many useful ideas as possible
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An alternative that is considered feasible for solving an existing problem and for implementation is ________.
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relevant
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Having too many alternatives may demotivate decision makers, which harms decision making. This is known as the ________.
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paradox of choice
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In the nominal group technique of decision-making, after all the members have discussed the ideas, they ________.
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take out a secret ballot to support their favorite idea
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Overconfidence is ________.
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the tendency to believe that our forecasts are better than they truly are
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The first step in the decision-making process is to ________.
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identify an existing problem
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The tendency to search for information that supports one’s preconceived beliefs and to ignore information that contradicts those beliefs is known as ________.
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confirmation bias
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Which of the following is true about decisions and decision-making?
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Decision making is the process of choosing the best alternative for reaching objectives.
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According to Fayol’s guidelines for organizing resources, you should do all of the following, EXCEPT ________.
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establish multiple guiding authorities
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According to the contingency viewpoint to designing span of management, the appropriate span of management widens when ________.
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the activities performed by supervised individuals are similar
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Dorothy Woods, CEO of Arcadia Corp., is planning to widen the spans of management in the organization in order to have a flatter organization. Which of the following, if true, would support Dorothy’s strategy?
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Arcadia Corp. is engaged in manufacturing bottle caps for a leading cola brand.
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Follett said that coordination can be attained with the least difficulty through ________.
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direct horizontal relationships and personal communications
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Formal structure is ________.
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represented primarily by the organization chart
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Informal structure is ________.
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molded by individual norms and values and social relationships
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Span of management refers to ________.
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the number of individuals a manager supervises
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The organization structure at Kinetic Machines is horizontally divided into Marketing, Finance, Production, and R departments. Identify the departmentalization mode being used here.
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functional
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Unity of command is the management principle that recommends that ________.
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an individual have only one boss
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Which of the following is the last step in the organizing process?
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Evaluate results of organizing strategy.
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Which of the following is the main criticism of Weber’s bureaucracy model?
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It gives short shrift to the human variable within organizations.
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________ organizations are also called project organizations.
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Matrix
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The most widely used basis for establishing departments within the formal structure is by type of product.
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False
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An individual’s emotional intelligence is characterized by self-awareness, self-motivation, self-regulation, empathy for others, and ________.
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adeptness in building relationships
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One of the characteristics of the grapevine is that it ________.
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exists largely to serve the self-interests of the people within it
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The capacity of people to recognize their own feelings and the feelings of others, to motivate themselves, and to manage their own feelings as well as the emotions in relationships with others, is called ________.
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emotional intelligence
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Which of the following is considered a microbarrier to organizational communication?
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individuals’ perception of messages
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Which of the following is the primary purpose of the influencing subsystem?
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attainment of management objectives
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A manager sends an e-mail to all the employees in his department. This is an example of serial transmission.
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False
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A leader is engaging in ________ behavior when he sets challenging goals for followers to reach and demonstrates confidence that they will measure up to the challenge.
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achievement
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A manager displays the highest degree of subordinate-centered leadership when he or she ________.
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permits subordinates to function within limits defined by superior
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According to the Life Cycle Theory, the ability of followers to perform their jobs independently, to assume additional responsibility, and to desire to achieve success is called ________.
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maturity
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The life cycle theory of leadership maintains that ________.
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a manager’s leadership style will be effective only if it is appropriate for the maturity level of the followers
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Under which leadership theory does the leader inspire organizational success by profoundly affecting followers’ beliefs in what an organization should be, as well as their values, such as justice and integrity?
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transformational leadership
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Which approach to leadership suggests successful leadership requires a unique combination of leaders, followers, and leadership situations?
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the situational approach to leadership
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Being tough-minded and structured are characteristics associated with managers rather than emerging leaders.
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True
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A tire manufacturing company’s policy states that all employees working on machines and directly involved in production are entitled to an additional half an hour break along with a 40-minute lunch break. In this scenario, the company is satisfying the ________ need of the employees.
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physiological
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According to the Vroom expectancy theory, motivation strength ________.
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is determined by the perceived value of the result of performing a behavior and the perceived probability the behavior will cause the result to materialize
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The most basic motivation strategy for managers is ________.
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managerial communication
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The most fundamental motivation theory that begins with an individual feeling a need is ________.
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needs-goal theory
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Which theory is a set of essentially positive assumptions about human nature?
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Theory Y
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XYZ Company offers its employees the opportunity to buy shares of company stock as a way to motivate them to boost production. This kind of a program is called ________.
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ESOP
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________ rewards are those that come directly from performing a task.
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Intrinsic

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