Building Citizenship: Civics & Economics – Ch. 3

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Constitution
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a written detailed plan for government
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bicameral
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a legislature consisting of two parts or houses
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New states based their constitutions off of
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bill of rights
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confederation
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a group of states that unit for a certain reason
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articles of confederation
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first constitution for the US
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ratify
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to vote and approve of
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ordinnce
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a law usually of a city or a country
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Ordinance of 1785
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a law that set up a plan for surveying western lands; this method is still used today.
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Northwest Ordinance
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1787 law that set up a government for the Northwest Territory and served as a model for other new territories and as a plan for admitting new states to the Union
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Shay’s Rebellion
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an uprising of Massachusetts farmers who did not want to lose their farms because of debt caused by heavy state taxes after the American Revolution
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Constitutional Convention
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meeting of state delegates in 1787 leading to adoption of a new Constitution
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James Madison
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father of the Constitution
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The Virginia Plan
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had a federal government much like ours. It had a president, courts, and a congress with two houses. State population would decide how many representatives were in each house. Larger states would have more votes than smaller states
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New Jersey Plan
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It was based on the Articles of Confederation, with some changes. The plan kept the Confederation’s one-house congress. Each state would have one vote. But Congress could set taxes and regulate, or control, trade. These were powers it did not have under the Articles. Also, instead of a strong president, a less powerful committee named by Congress would carry out laws.
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Great Compromise
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The compromise which there would be two houses in the legislature
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Three Fifths Compromise
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agreement providing that enslaved persons would count as three-fifths of other persons in determining representation in Congress
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Electoral College
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agreement providing that enslaved persons would count as three-fifths of other persons in determining representation in Congress
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Can regulate trade
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congress
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cant tax exports
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congresssss
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9/13 decide
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ratify constitution
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Federalists
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liked the constitution
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Anti-federalists
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against ratifying the constitution
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The federalist papers
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a series of essays written to defend the Constitution
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Preamble
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the openning for the consitution
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article
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one of the several main parts of the constitution
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amendment
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any change to the constitution
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Article 1
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shows the powers of the legislative branch and congress
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legislature
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the lawmaiking branch of the government
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Article 2
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says powers of the executive branch
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executive
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carries out the laws
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Article 3
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says powers of the judicial branch
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judicial
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the branch of government that interprets laws
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Article 4
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the relationship between the states and the national government
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Article 5
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describes when and how the Constitution can be changed
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Aricle 6
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declares the Constitution the “supreme Law of the Land.
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Article 7
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describes how the Constitution was to be ratified.
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27
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__________:amendments
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Bill of Rights
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first 10 amendments
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Formal amendment
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amendments are part of the Constitution
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Informal amendment
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informal, or unofficial, changes
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Dinal authority of interpreting the constitution
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supreme court
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Five basic principals of government
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popular sovereignty limited government and the rule of law separation of powers checks and balances federalism
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popular sovereignty
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the idea that power lies with the people
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limited government
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the principal that a ruler or a government is not all-powerful; a government that can do only what the people allow it to do
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rule of law
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principle that the law applies to everyone, even those who govern
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seperation of powers
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the split of authority among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches
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checks and balances
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a system in which each branch of government is able to check, or restrain, the power of the others
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enumerated powers
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powers granted directly to the national government by the Constitution; another name for expressed powers
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reserved powers
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powers that the Constitution does not give to the national government that are kept by the states
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concurrent powers
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powers shared by the state and federal governments
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supremacy clause
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the clause in Article VI of the Constitution that makes federal laws prevail over state laws when there is a conflict

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