bsis part 3

Functional Areas
(A business organization is divided into departments know as functional areas. For example, the marketing or accounting department is a functional area of the organization)
Business Processes
(Are structured tasks or activities with predefined objectives that entail all events from the beginning to the end of the process. For example the sales to cash business process is all of the business activities that are involved in selling goods to a customer and subsequently collecting payment from that customer)
Bird’s eye view
(looking at a specific functional area and ignoring to a good extent the other functions involved in business. Concentrate strictly on the topic involved in the course and will not look at the entire business process involved in a successful business. what the bird sees is just the thing that it’s hovering over or the thing that it’s flying over.
Worm’s eye view
(the worm goes through the ground, it sees everything that goes on from the beginning point to the end point. That is, they see the entire process not just specific parts of a process. Another way to look at this is with respect to an assembly line. In an assembly line each worker is given a specific task to do.)
Information Age
(With advancements in modern technology, due to the Digital Revolution, many companies have access to information that was never possible before. Organizations are very dependent on such information to survive in this new era of doing business. The traditional way of doing business is becoming obsolete and a thing of the past. Information is essential when making a business decision)
Data driven decisions
(As a manger makes a business decision he or she needs to have data to support their actions. This data is commonly extracted from the information system. A detailed analysis on the data is necessary to support the actions taken. Such a method to making decisions is a data driven approach)
Operational data
(The most important data available to a company. This data is necessary for a company’s daily activities.)
Historical data
(Dated summary data used for strategic decisions. Not as detailed as Operational Data. Generally this data is stored in a date warehouse)
“Big data”
(Non-numeric data of large proportions. This data can be analyzed to provide information useful for a company’s competitive advantage)
(it’s the focus on the internal functions of an organization and how the business operates internally)
macro view of business
(Focuses on external forces that affect an organization. For example: governmental, regulatory, or competitive forces that require a business to change a procedure, policy, or how it does business)
Business objectives
(The objective of any business is to make a profit)
Business organization
(There are many different ways businesses can be organized. From a legal point of view businesses can be sole proprietorships, partnerships and corporations.)
Sole proprietorship
(A sole proprietorship is where essentially one person owns and runs the company. It is the simplest and most common structure chosen to start a business. The owner is entitled to all the profits as well as being responsible for all the debts, losses and liabilities. Generally these are very small companies)
(A partnership is where a fixed group of owners are involved in the business and share the control and the profits and losses of the business. Generally, these are smaller to medium size companies. There are three types of partnership arrangements: general, limited and joint venture)
(primary type of legal organization. Corporations (also referred to as C Corporations) are companies that issue stock and are an independent legal entity owned by the shareholders. Corporations are more complex than other business structures because of complex tax and legal requirements. However, unlike other business formations, the corporation itself, not the shareholders (owners), is held legally responsible for all debts the business incurs)
Organizational structure
(The hierarchical arrangement of lines of authority, task allocation, communications and duties of an organization. It determines how the roles and responsibilities are assigned, controlled and coordinated throughout the organization. It also determines how the information flows between the different levels of management (top down). Each structure of an organization depends on the business objectives and strategy. An organizational chart illustrates the organizational structure)
(Is the highest-ranking executive. The CEO reports to the Board of Directors. The CEO’s primary responsibilities include developing and implementing high-level strategies, making major corporate decisions and managing the overall operations and resources of the company)
(The CFO is the senior manager responsible for overseeing the financial activities of the organization. The CFO manages the financial planning and monitoring of the company’s cash flow. The CFO oversees the accounting and finance departments while ensuring that the company’s financial reporting is accurate and completed on time)
(highest level executive in info systems. This person is responsible for the operation of the information systems (IS) area)
(The COO is the senior manager responsible for managing the day-to-day operations while reporting them directly to the CEO. This person oversees production quotas and day-to-day activities. The COO has a close working relationship with the CEO. It is their primary duty to keep the CEO updated with current organizational events)
Sales to cash business process
(pre-sales, sales, picking and shipping, billing, cash collection)
Purchase to pay business process
(order goods, receive goods, receive invoice, pay invoice)
Raw materials to finished goods business process
( to build a table you need, table, nuts, bolts, legs, table top)
Flow charts
(show decision making process)
Flow chart symbols
(decision/diamond, process/rectangle, triangle/trigger)
Event trigger
(event that starts a business process. The triggering event is initiated upon the customer requesting an order for the goods. It begins the process of completing the transaction)
Operational flows
(This is the processing of raw materials and turning them into finished goods ready for sale to customers)
Business process analysis
(Is a documentation and charting tool. This is a tool that is free to students at CSU Chico and is a powerful and easy way of generating different types of diagrams that can be used to analyze business situations. Visio is part of the Microsoft Office suite)
Sales to cash business process
(Is the primary source of revenue for most companies. It’s a revenue business process that consists of many elements: pre-sales, sales, picking and shipping, billing and cash collection)
Business to business transactions (B to B)
(more formal and more specified than B to C. A B to B is a commerce transaction that exists between businesses. It’s business that is conducted between companies. An example that illustrates the B to B concept is mobile manufacturing. Many of the phone’s components are manufactured independently and the mobile manufacturer must purchase these parts separately. For instance, the shell, batteries, electronics, glass and speakers may be manufactured elsewhere and sold directly to the phone manufacturer)
Business to consumer transactions
(B to C) (A transaction conducted directly between a company and a consumer who are the end-users of its product or service. B to C as a business model differs significantly from the B to B model. B to C is the most common model for everyday consumers. For example, when a 256 | Information: The Currency of Modern Business consumer purchases a product from a retailer such as Wal-Mart they played a role in the B to C model.)
Audit trail
(a linking of all the documents that have to do with a specific document. A step-by-step record by which data can be traced to their source. Audit records typically result from scientific research, financial transactions, or communications by systems, people, or accounts. This is the technique used to track improper market activity)
Pre-sales activities
(marketing, getting the customer interested in our product)
Sales activities
(getting customer purchase order and changing it to a sales order)
Picking and shipping activities
(pick items from inventory and prepare them for shipping)
Billing activity
(depends on the type of billing, invoice billing)
Cash collection activity
(The final step of the sales to cash business process is to receive the payment from the customer . It may be in cash, by check, by bank transfer or via a credit card transaction. Each payment method will entail slightly different processing. But the central part of the transaction is to record the payment in the customer’s account)
CRM systems
(customer relationship management systems, and we use them in pre-sales. An IS system that traces all of the activities for each customer of a company and all sales contacts with these customers. For example, all contact information and professional information will be stored so that a close relationship can be established between the sales representative and the customer. Determined by the situation this could include some personal data such as the names of the family members of the customer and important dates in their lives. Social media is now starting to play an important role in the CRM space.)
Master data
(customer info, places info, employees, and products. This key business information may include data about customers, products, employees, and materials suppliers etc)
Transaction data
(tells us about each transaction we make, Transaction data is the data that is recorded whenever a transaction occurs. That data contains the time and date of the transaction and the units or dollar amounts involved in the transaction. Transaction data is very volatile (i.e. it changes quite a bit and very quickly).
Customer purchase order
(comes from customer and starts the sales process)
Sales order
( used internally and contains all of the info from a customers purchase order. (An Internal form) the sales order, sometimes abbreviated as SO, is a standardized document used within the company. The customers’ purchase orders are transcribed to sales orders. In this way all of the information from any purchase order will be consistently in the same places on the form.)
Checking for adequate inventory (need to make sure if we have enough of the product)
Checking customer credit
(we need to make sure the customer has enough credit to be able to afford the product)
Partial shipments
( under certain circumstances, ship some products now and later)
Back orders
(items are out of stock but are ordered. A customer order that has not been fulfilled. A back order generally indicates that customer demand for a product or service exceeds a company’s capacity to supply it. The percentage of items backordered and the number of backorder days are important measures of the quality of a company’s customer service. Total back orders, also known as backlog, may be expressed in terms of units or dollar amount)
Reserving ordered goods (where we have inventory to sell but haven’t sold it more than once. Don’t sell 1 item twice)
Picking and shipping
(pick an item from inventory and prepare them for shipping)
Picking list
(tells warehouse people what goods need to be taken from the inventory to fill an order. The picking list specifies the items to be picked and the number of items to be picked without the prices of the goods. The price is usually not included since this is something the warehouse people don’t need to know to do their job)
Packing slip
(Is a shipping document that is attached with the delivered package. It is a detailed list of the package but usually does not include the customer pricing. The customer will use the packing slip upon opening the package to confirm that the goods shipped were indeed the goods they ordered.)
Bill of lading
(document given to the truck driver delivering the goods to the customer and it says what is inside the truck. A legal document between the shipper of a particular good and the carrier detailing the type, quantity and destination of the good being carried. The bill of lading also serves as a receipt of shipment when the good is delivered to the destination. The document must be with the shipped goods and signed by the authorized representative)
(Billing is the first step in the process of collecting payment from the customer. For most businesses the billing process happens after the good ships)
Invoice billing
(primary method of customer billing/ get money right away. One possible way billing can be conducted. This is where the invoice sent to the customer appears it is very similar to the sales order used to process the sale. That is, the amount the customer is billed is for the amount of the goods for that specific shipment. Of course tax and shipping costs would also Invoice billing is usually done when the purchases are large and infrequent)
Balance forward billing
(Also termed cycle billing) is the second method of billing. It is the balance outstanding from the Glossary | 253previous bill. This is the way credit card transactions are billed. Since different customers are billed on different days, the work of the billing staff can be divided over the entire month. Balance forward billing is done when there are many transactions and the dollar amounts of the transactions are not that significant.)
Cycle billing
(primary method of customer billing. is the practice of billing different customers based on a scheduled cycle rather billing everyone all at once. Cycle billing allows companies to develop a set schedule and track which customers have and have not yet been billed. It provides companies an efficient way of monitoring their financials)
Cash collection
(most risky step in the purchase to pay process)
Accounts receivable
(money that people owe us. money owed by customers (individuals or corporations) to another entity in exchange for goods or services that have been delivered or used, but not yet paid for. The payment by the customer reduces that account receivable on the company books)
(Is business management software that allows an organization to use a system of integrated applications to manage their business. ERP software integrates all functions of an operation, including finance and accounting, customer relationship management (CRM), product planning, development, manufacturing processes, sales and marketing. )
(SAP is the dominant Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) vendor in the world. A very large majority of the Fortune 500 companies rely on the SAP ERP system to run their businesses. It is a massive software system that encompasses almost all of the business processes that most businesses have.)
SAP Instance
( a specific machine that we were working on. An SAP instance defines a group of resources such as memory, work processes and so on, usually in support of a single application server or database server within a client/server environment. SAP instances are defined during the installation of
the SAP system)
SAP Client
( a specific company that we were working on in that machine. In the SAP environment, a client is an entity with independent information and data.)
Purchase to pay business process
(A purchase is always motivated by a need for a product or service. All companies need to acquire some type of good or service that will be used in the normal course of business. The purchase to pay process consists of many elements: order goods, receive goods, receive invoice and pay invoice)
Purchase for resale
(Wal-Mart buy goods from a manufacturer and then resells them)
Reorder point
(Inventory level of an good which signals the need for placement of a replenishment order, taking into account the consumption of the item during order lead time and the quantity required for the safety stock. It is based on factors such as the amount of time it takes for the goods to be delivered, the expected demand for the good between ordering and delivery and the penalties involved if demand is not met due to an out of stock situation)
Reorder quantity
(The required quantity of an item needed to fulfill the inventory level. It is based on factors such as the amount of time it takes for the goods to be delivered, the expected demand for the good between ordering and delivery and the penalties involved if demand is not met due to an out of stock situation)
Order goods
(The process is primarily based on a set of reorder rules that dictate at what inventory level more goods need to be ordered)
Receive goods
(The next event will be the goods arriving at the purchasing company. Generally this will happen in the receiving department. Their job is to inspect the goods and make sure that the goods that arrived are the goods that were ordered. One way to do this is to open the package, remove the packing slip and count the goods.)
Receive invoice
(The usual procedure is that once the goods ship the vendor will then send the invoice. No matter if the vendor does open order billing or cycle billing, the invoice is needed by the customer in order to confirm that the goods that were shipped were actually ordered. The vendor will usually be directed to send the invoice to the accounting department. Upon receipt of the invoice, an accounting employee (usually someone from accounts payable) will compare the purchase order with the receiving report and the invoice to make sure that they are being billed for something the company ordered and received.)
Pay invoice
(The matched documents verify that the bill is valid and must be paid. In order to maintain a good credit rating the company must pay their bills by the due date)
Purchase requisition
(starts the purchase to pay process internally. Does a user department to notify the purchasing department of items it needs to order, the required quantity and the timeframe generate a document. This is a document only used within the company and should be the same for all departments in the company.
Purchase order
(document sent to the purchasing agent to the vendor to order the goods)
Receiving report
(this report verifies that the goods were received and counted. This is a document that lists each good and the number of items received)
Three way match
(Is an important fraud prevention procedure that legitimizes the billing of goods. Upon receipt of the invoice, an accounting employee (usually someone from accounts payable) will compare the purchase order with the receiving report and the invoice to make sure that they are being billed for something the company ordered and received)
Voucher package
( purchase order, receiving doc, and invoice. contains the three way match. This is a document verifying the debt owed to the vendor. Payment should only be made when a voucher package confirms the debt.)
Accounts payable
(Upon receipt of the invoice, an accounting employee (usually someone from accounts payable) will compare the purchase order with the receiving report and the invoice to make sure that they are being billed for something the company ordered and received)
(Consists of a sequence of connected steps where each step follows without delay or gap and ends just before the subsequent step begins. This allows many types of transactions to be done with little or no paperwork and with a minimum of human intervention)
Production business process
(Is one of the most complex processes within a business. Unlike sales and purchasing processes that almost all companies have, not all companies produce things. Because the production process is more complex, computer technology has been used extensively to streamline and improve the process. The production process can be broken into two sub processes: pre-production and production.)
(The pre-production phase of the business process is dominated by engineers. In this sub process the product is planned and developed. The initial part of the process stems from research and development activities)
(the production process is more complex, computer technology has been used extensively to streamline and improve the process)
Bill of materials (BOM)
(The bill of materials (sometimes termed a material BOM) is a structured list of all of the components needed to make a product. The comprehensive list contains raw materials, components and assemblies required to build or manufacture a product. A bill of materials (BOM) is usually in a hierarchical format, with the topmost level showing the end product, and the bottom level displaying individual components and materials. A manufacturing BOM is of vital importance in materials requirement planning (MRP) and enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems.)
(operations list) (An important planning document) is the routings also called the operations list. This is a detailed listing of all of the work stations with specific machinery and operators that are needed to produce and assemble the product and the amount of time that is needed at that station. The routing for a subassembly would state the first operation necessary to produce that subassembly, the work center necessary to build it and the amount of time needed at that work center.)
Master production schedule
(MPS) (MPS is a plan for individual commodities to produce in each time period such as production, staffing, inventory, etc. It is usually linked to manufacturing where the plan indicates when and how much of each product will be demanded. This plan quantifies significant processes, parts and other resources in order to optimize production, to identify bottlenecks and to anticipate needs and completed goods)
Computer aided design (CAD)
(CAD is the use of computer systems to assist in the creation, modification, analysis or optimization of a design. CAD software is used to increase the productivity of the designer, improve the quality of design, improve communications through documentation and to create a database for manufacturing)
Computer aided manufacture (CAM)
( CAM is the use of computer software to control machine tools and related machinery in the manufacturing of work pieces. CAM may also refer to the use of a computer to assist in all operations of a manufacturing plant, including planning, management, transportation and storage. Its primary purpose is to create a faster production process and components and tooling with more precise dimensions and material consistency)
Manufacturing resource planning (MRP II) (MRP II is a method for the effective planning of all resources of a manufacturing company. It addresses operational planning in units, financial planning and has a simulation capability to answer “what-if” questions)
Production work order
(This is a document that states what finished good is to be produced, the number of units needed and the time the units are needed)
Material requisition
(Is a form that shows what raw materials are needed, where the materials are going and the responsible person. The material requisition is not to be confused with the purchase requisition. The material requisition is an internal document used to track the flow of materials within the company)
Move ticket
(As the work is moved from one workstation to another, there is usually a move ticket that tracks the flow to the next workstation. This is a way to keep track of where the work that is being processed is located and how much of the work has been completed.)
Bar codes (UPC codes)
(Also called universal product code UPC) is a machine-readable code in the form of numbers and a pattern of parallel lines of varying widths, printed on and identifying a product)
RFID codes
(The tags contain electronically stored information. Some tags are powered by and read at short ranges typically a few meters via magnetic fields (electromagnetic induction). RFID tags are used in many industries. An RFID tag attached to a mobile device during production can be used to track its progress through the assembly line.)
(Data accuracy is collecting data with freedom from mistake or error)
(In regards to data, it’s having the data readily available in a suitable time. At present time this usually means that data is captured, stored and accessed in real time)
(In regards to data, it’s data that can be retrieved that satisfies the needs of the user)
(In regards to data, it’s having the data available to the people authorized to use the data when these people need to use the data. With many companies operating worldwide this means that the system must be available and accessible almost 24 hours a day 7 days a week.)
(In regards to data, its data that is convenient and practicable for use. It’s useful data to the company)
(One of the most important data aspects is that of data integrity. This means that first of all the data is initially correct when entered into the system and then remains accurate throughout its useful life. An important concept of data integrity is the lack of data redundancy. If the same data item is stored multiple times, then there is a good chance that this data item will have inconsistent values)
(Is essentially data of high quality. It is complete when it fits the demands of the intended user in operations, decision-making and planning. Data is considered complete when it represents reality)
Decision types
(Are the typical day-to-day decisions made in running a business)
(Tactical decisions are sort of the middle of the road types of decisions. They are normally more important than operational decisions and will have a longer term impact on the company when compared to operational decisions. On the other hand, tactical decisions are not as important and do not have as long an impact as strategic decisions.)
(Are those made at the highest-level of an organization and generally will have a long-term impact on the company. Examples of strategic decisions are whether to build a new production facility, whether to develop and introduce a new product line, the hiring or dismissal of high level executives, etc. Each of these decisions can have a significant influence on the success and maybe even the survival of the company.)
Data types
(Is a fixed format that is readily available internal data. When dealing with operational decisions, the decision can be made using only the available structured data.)
(Some of it is structured as with operational decision-making, but some of it is unstructured. The entities belonging to the same class may have different attributes even though they are grouped together, and the attributes’ order is not important.)
(Refers to information that either does not have a pre-defined data model or is not organized in a predefined manner. It’s the data that is used to assist in strategic decisions.)
ERP systems
(An ERP system covers almost all areas of a business and stores all of the data in a single unified database. In addition, these systems are designed to almost totally eliminate data redundancy. Another benefit of these systems is that they enforce uniform business processes throughout the company)
OLTP systems
(They are used to run the business on a day-to-day basis. Hence, with respect to decision-making they are primarily involved in the operational decision making of a company and their data is strictly structured data. Most of the routine operational decisions are programmed into the ERP system. So decisions dealing with inventory levels, customer credit levels, product delivery dates, etc. are all automatically handled by the system)
OLAP systems
(These systems will store massive amounts of data that may go back with decades of historic data. They are designed differently than the OLTP systems in that they are optimized for reading and not writing. The data storage area is usually referred to as a data warehouse. Since the data warehouse structure emphasizes read efficiency, unlike the entity/relationship model used in OLTP systems, there will be much data redundancy in OLAP systems. The general rule is that OLAP systems will be somewhere around 100 times bigger than OLTP system)
Big Data systems
Entity/relationship diagrams
(Usually called normalized database structure, accomplishes both the reduction of redundancy and optimized write speed very well. The ER structure is the relationship of entities to each other. An entity is a piece of data (an object or concept about which the data is stored). A relationship is how the data is shared between entities. There are three types of relationships between entities: one-to-one, one-to many and many-to-many.)
Star schema
(The basic structure involved in building a data warehouse is a series of star schemas. These are simple two dimensional data structures that are subject oriented (for example, hiring in human capital management, sales activity by product line in marketing, accounts receivable management in accounting, etc.). While these structures can store large amounts of data, their simple structure allows for relatively fast access.)
(Computer hardware refers to the physical parts or components of a computer such as monitor, keyboard, computer data storage, hard drive disk, mouse, CPU (graphic cards, sound cards, memory, motherboard and chips), etc. all of which are physical objects that you can actually touch.)
(Computer software is a general term that describes computer programs. Related terms such as software programs, applications, scripts and instruction sets all fall under the category of computer software. It’s the software that knows which areas of memory contain instructions and which areas contain data.)
(Main board or logic board) is the main printed circuit board (PCB) found in computers and other expandable systems. It holds many of the crucial electronic components of the system, such as the central processing unit (CPU) and memory, and provides connectors for other peripherals. If you ever open your computer, the biggest piece of silicon you see is the motherboard. Attached to the motherboard, you’ll find the CPU, ROM, memory RAM expansion slots, PCI slots, and USB ports)
Card slots
(There are two completely different types of card slots in most computers. The memory card slots are used primarily to add memory to RAM, in the form of memory cards. Extra memory can be used in the processing of instructions and data. Access card slots (also called I/O card slots) are used to add peripheral devices to a system. This can include graphics cards, sound cards, networking cards, etc. These cards have external access so that the related devices can be attached to the system.)
(Is the hardware within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetical, logical, and input/output operations of the system. This is the pretty much the brain of your computer (the thinking part of the system). It processes everything from basic instructions to complex functions. Any time something needs to be computed, it gets sent to the CPU. The CPU can also be referred to simply as the “processor.” In terms of computing power, the CPU is the most important element of a computer system )
(An ALU is an integrated circuit within a CPU or GPU that performs arithmetic and logic operations. Arithmetic instructions include addition, subtraction, and shifting operations, while logic instructions include Boolean comparisons, such as AND, OR, XOR, and NOT operations. ALUs are designed to perform integer calculations. Therefore, besides adding and subtracting numbers, ALUs often handle the multiplication of two integers, since the result is also an integer.)
Control unit
(A control unit (CU) handles all processor control signals. It directs the flow of data between the Central Processing Unit (CPU) and the other devices. It directs all input and output flow, fetches code for instructions from micro programs and directs other units and models by providing control and timing signals. A CU component is considered the processor brain because it issues orders to just about everything and ensures correct instruction execution)
(Are a special high-speed storage area within the CPU. All data must be represented in a register before it can be processed. For example, if two numbers are to be multiplied, both numbers must be in registers, and the result is also placed in a register. (The register can contain the address of a memory location where data is stored rather than the actual data itself)
Memory bus
(The memory bus is the computer bus, which connects the main memory to the memory controller in computer systems. The memory bus connects the memory system and the North bridge area of the chipset. This section of the chipset also connects directly to the central processing unit (CPU) and the graphics system.)
Main memory
(Also termed random access memory or RAM) is directly or indirectly connected to the central processing unit (CPU) via a memory bus. Computer data storage, often called storage or memory, is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media used to retain digital data. It is a core function and fundamental component of computers. This is the largest memory area (gigabytes) connected directly to the CPU and it is slower than registers, but much faster than disk drive memory)
I/O bus
(Is a communication system that transfers data between components inside a computer, or between computers. The I/O bus is the pathway used for input and output devices to communicate with the computer processor)
Peripheral (I/O) devices
(A computer peripheral is any external device that provides input and output (I/O) for the computer. They expand the capabilities of a computer. For example, a keyboard and mouse are input peripherals, while a monitor and printer are output peripherals. Computer peripherals, or peripheral devices, are sometimes called “I/O devices” because they provide input and output for the computer. There are three different types of peripherals: Input, used to interact with, or send data to the computer (mouse, keyboards, etc.), output, which provides output to the user from the computer (monitors, printers, etc.) and storage, which stores data processed by the computer (hard drives, flash drives, etc.)
(is the circular disk on which magnetic data is stored in a hard disk drive. The rigid nature of the platters in a hard drive is what gives them their name (as opposed to the flexible materials which are used to make floppy disk). Hard drives typically have several platters, which are mounted on the same spindle. A platter can store information on both sides, requiring two heads per platter. Magnetic metal or ceramic disk located inside the computer hard drive that holds the actual data)
(Same as access arm) it’s the mechanical arm that moves the read/write head across the surface of a disk. The access arm is directed by instructions in the operating system to move the read/write head to a specific track on the disk. The rotation of the disk positions the read/write head over the required sector)
Read/write heads
(Disk read/write heads are the small parts of a disk drive, that move above the disk platter and transform the platter’s magnetic field into electrical current (read the disk) or vice versa – transform electrical current into magnetic field (write the disk)
(Refers to random access memory (RAM) that can be accessed at the byte level such as the common DRAM and SRAM chips used in all computers. A single character can be read from or written into any memory byte. Byte addressing is essential to working on individual items of data. It enables fields in a record and characters in a field to be identified and processed independently of the rest. All RAM and ROM memory is byte addressable )
(Is memory containing hardwired instructions that the computer uses when it boots up, before the system software loads. The instructions are read from a small program in the ROM, called the BIOS (Basic Input/Output System). ROM is usually stored on a separate memory chip)
BIOS (Basic Input/Output System)
(Or the control register) it holds much of the status information the system needs in order to operate. It’s a collection of information that encapsulates the basic execution state of a program at any instant. It permits an interrupted process to resume operation after the interrupt has been handled.)
Execution cycle – address of next instruction, increment PSW, execute instruction
Types of instructions – Load, store, add, compare, and branch
(A bit is the basic unit of information in computing and digital communications. A bit can have only one of two values, and may therefore be physically implemented with a two-state device. The most common representation of these values are 0 and1. The term bit is a contraction of binary digit)
(A byte is a unit of measurement used to measure data. One byte contains eight binary bits, or a series of eight zeros and ones. Therefore, each byte can be used to represent 2^8 or 256 different values.)
Hexadecimal arithmetic – 0101 1011 = 5B
Operating system
(An OS is software that communicates with the hardware and allows other programs to run. It is comprised of system software, or the fundamental files your computer needs to boot up and function. Every desktop computer, tablet and smart phone includes an operating system that provides basic functionality for the device. Operating systems perform basic tasks, such as recognizing input from the keyboard, sending output to the display screen, keeping track of files and directories on the disk, and controlling peripheral devices such as disk drives and printers.)
Initial program load
(IPL – Also known as booting up) is the initial set of operations that a computer system performs when electrical power to the CPU is switched on or when the computer is reset. The process begins when a computer is turned on for the first time or is re-energized after being turned off or when it is reset, and ends when the computer is ready to perform its normal operations. The main task of IPL is to load the operating system.)
Leading edge
(Leading and innovative IT industry organizations are often referred to as “cutting edge.” Cutting edge technology refers to technological devices, techniques or achievements that employ the most current and high-level IT developments)
Bleeding edge
(Is technology that is acquired almost immediately after its release, regardless of the increased cost or risk involved. Bleeding edge technology is most popular among innovators and early adopters, and is often seen as related to terms “leading edge” and “cutting edge.” But it is not to be confused with leading edge or cutting edge.)
Trailing edge
(Is waiting for the last minute to commit to a new technology. It refers to companies that are extremely risk adverse to technology and wait until the success of the technology is a certainty. At this point adopting technology becomes a defensive strategy. They have been put at a competitive disadvantage and their only choice is to commit to the new technology)
Active tags
(Tags that use batteries as a partial or complete source of power to boost the effective operating range of the tag and to offer additional features over passive tags, such as temperature sensing. Active tags have an internal battery to power them and are usually RW (tag data can be rewritten and/or modified). Active tags generally can transmit their data over a longer distance, the tag itself is larger than a passive tag, and has a limited operational lifespan.)
Passive tags
(Are smaller and lighter than active tags but have a shorter communication range and require a high-powered reader. Passive tags are generally read-only and as such, once it is programmed with data, that data cannot be modified. Passive tags contain no internal power source. They are externally powered and typically derive their power from the carrier signal radiated from the scanner )
(Is a methodology in which either one physical computer can be made to appear to be multiple computers or many computers can appear to be one computer. Applies to all types of hardware. Allows for a single platform to assume many roles. Increases the capabilities while reducing costs.)
(A major I.T. problem. BYOD “bring your own device” is a phrase that has become widely adopted to refer to employees who bring their own computing devices: smart phones, laptops and PDAs to the workplace for use and connectivity on the corporate network. It’s the policy of permitting employees to bring personally owned mobile devices to their workplace, and use those devices to access privileged company information and applications)
Mobile device management (MDM)
(this software is still available, but there are still problems. Has potential for major shifts in business processes).
Cloud computing
(Is a type of computing that relies on sharing computing resources rather than having local servers or personal devices to handle applications. Cloud computing is the next stage in the Internet’s evolution, providing the means through which everything — from computing power to computing infrastructure, applications, business processes to personal collaboration — can be delivered to you as a service wherever and whenever you need it.)
Based on Internet
(Is software that is owned, delivered and managed remotely by one or more providers. The provider delivers the software based on one set of common code and data definitions that is consumed in a one to many model by all contracted customers at anytime on a pay-for-use basis or as a subscription based on use metrics. Users using a thin client via a web browser typically access SaaS. SaaS allows organizations to access business functionality at a cost typically less than paying for licensed applications since SaaS pricing is based on a monthly fee.)
(Is a standardized, highly automated offering, where compute resources, complemented by storage and networking capabilities are owned and hosted by a service provider and offered to customers on-demand. Customers are able to self-provision this infrastructure, using a Web-based graphical user interface that serves as an IT operations management console for the overall environment)
(Is a category of cloud computing services that provides a computing platform and a solution stack as a service. Along with SaaS and IaaS, it is a service model of cloud computing. In this model, the consumer creates the software using tools and/or libraries from the provider. The consumer also controls software deployment and configuration settings. The provider provides the networks, servers, storage and other services)
Social media
(A term used to describe a variety of Web based platforms, applications and technologies that enable people to socially interact with one another online. It refers to the interactions among people in which they create, share, and exchange information and ideas in virtual communities and networks)
3-D printing
(Is the process of making a three dimensional solid object of virtually any shape from a digital model. 3D printing is achieved using an additive process, where successive layers of material are laid down in different shapes.3D printing is also considered distinct from traditional machining techniques, which mostly rely on the removal of material by methods such as cutting or drilling subtractive processes. The 3D printing technology is used for both prototyping and distributed manufacturing with applications in industrial design, architecture, construction, automotive, military, etc.)
(Extensible Markup Language) Is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable. It allows designers to create their own customized tags, enabling the definition, transmission, validation, and interpretation of data between applications and between organizations )
(Uniform Resource Locator): To use a browser to access a Web server, you must enter the server’s addresses or URL. All Web addresses begin with seven characters: http://.)
(It’s the underlying protocol used by the World Wide Web. HTTP defines how messages are formatted and transmitted, and what actions Web servers and browsers should take in response to various commands. For example, when you enter a URL in your browser, this actually sends an HTTP command to the Web server directing it to fetch and transmit the requested Web page)
Normalized database
(In simple terms it means that the data involved in every transaction is broken up and stored in a series of interlinked tables that have no redundancy. One way to look at this is to say that each separate master data object, for example people, places or things, have a separate table)
(Is the act of linking two tables together in a database. There are several types of database relationships: One to one, one to many and many to one, and many to many)
Primary key
(The PK is the unique identifier for each row in the table. That means that trying to enter the same primary Key for two different rows will produce an error. That is one way databases enforce data integrity.)
Foreign key
(A FK is a column or combination of columns that is used to establish and enforce a link between the data in two tables. You can create a foreign key by defining a FK constraint when you create or modify a table. In a foreign key reference, a link is created between two tables when the column or columns in another table reference the column or columns that hold the primary key value for one table. This column becomes a foreign key in the second table)
Referential integrity
(Is a relational database concept, which states that table relationships must always be consistent. In other words, any foreign key field must agree with the primary key that is referenced by the foreign key. It’s another way databases enforce data integrity. )
Join operation
(A linking operation) it is a key function in making databases powerful and useful. A join of two data sources is the association of objects in one data source with objects that share a common attribute in another data source. Joining is an important operation in queries that target data sources whose relationships to each other cannot be followed directly)
Local area networking
(Usually computers in the same building will be connected via LAN. It’s a network that is located in a small geographic area, such as an office, a building, or a campus, and whose communication technology provides a high bandwidth, low-cost medium to which many nodes can be connected.)
Backbone network
(Computers in different buildings owned by the same company will have the two local area networks attached to a backbone network. BN are a large network to which many networks within an organization are connected. It usually is a network that interconnects all networks on a single site, but it can be larger if it connects all the organization’s terminals, computers, mainframes, LANs and other communication equipment.)
Wide area network
(WAN): To communicate with the world beyond the company or in remote locations the backbone network will attach to a wide area network (WAN). It is a network spanning a large geographical area. Its nodes can span city, state, or national boundaries. WANs typically use circuits provided by common carriers.
Networking protocols
(A networking protocol is simply a set of rules that each part of the network follows in order to understand the other component’s transmissions.)
Query by design
(QBE) (Is a feature included with various database applications that provides a user-friendly method of running database queries. Typically without QBE, a user must write input commands using correct SQL syntax. The Query By Example feature provides a simple interface for a user to enter queries instead of writing an entire SQL command.)

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