Boxing Plato’s Shadow

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Sophists
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professional teachers opposed by Plato; person who studied and taught persuasive public speaking; began the systematic study of communication and brought about major advances in Greek thought
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Plato’s legacy
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the communication discipline has been battling the perception that what we do isn’t important (because of Plato’s influence)
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1920s
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communication begins to develop as an area of academic study
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adversary system
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ancient Greek system of using a third party to settle disputes–each man presents their side
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democracy
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replacement of tyranny in Athens during 6th century BC
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arete
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knowledge and attitude of effective participation in domestic, social, and political life (encouraged in Sophists teaching)
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Corax
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credited with inventing the study of rhetoric, identifying the different parts of speech, and with defining the concept of probability (sophist)
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Protagoras
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contributed the idea that there are two sides to every argument-\”father of debate\”- the \”truth\” of one side should be tested by the \”truth\” of the other side with advocates for each trying to prove that their truth is stronger (sophist)
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Gorgias
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showed that public speakers can excite and inspire people. also developed Kairos (sophist)
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kairos
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states that speakers should adapt their oratory to suit the audience and occasion
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Hippias
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advocated that speakers must be knowledgeable, able to answer all questions about a subject–always important to have new things to say on a subject (sophist)
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Isocrates
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4th century BC brought together much teaching of 5th century BC sophists-teacher or rhetoric who influenced Aristotle, Cicero, and Quintillian (sophist)
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Socrates
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Plato was his follower; suspicious of attempts to persuade; believed Truth was absolute and permanent-humans are to seek Truth by going inside themselves. help them by asking questions, not trying to persuade
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Aristotle
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studied, taught, and wrote every subject known to the ancient Greeks; saw merit in both Plato’s and the sohists’ positions concerning study of rhetoric and applied himself to discovering ways to reconcile the two opposing views
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Differences btwn Aristotle and Plato
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-A. sought to understand his natural and social environment by observing systematically rather than using reasoning and dialogue to \”draw out\” knowledge and understanding -A. said Truth is all around in the environment and is to be taken in through the senses; P. said Truth lies within the person and must be drawn out -A. said sometimes certainty is not attainable -A. said rhetoric could be used for evil or good and it was the duty of honorable citizens to use it right
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formal logic
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Aristotle’s greatest contribution-logic guides thoughts to sure conclusions
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5 canons (Quintilian-based on Aristotle’s ideas)
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invention-generate the ideas needed to be persuasive in a given situation disposition-ability to organize ideas for best impact style-ability to use language appropriately in any situation memory-ability to remember facts and ideas delivery-ability to speak in a clear, strong voice and with effective gestures
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Alexander the Great
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ordered construction of great library to house important Greek works/translate them into Arabic
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Averroes
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Muslim logician who addressed rhetoric in his work-truths in the Koran can be used to demonstrate other truths
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Cicero
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Greatest Greek orator/teacher/scholar; wrote 7 books on rhetoric drawing from Greek knowledge, suggested that oratory has 3 practical objectives (instruct, please, win over) that were vital to functioning as a Roman citizen in the republic (1st cen.)
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Quintilian
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eminent Roman scholar/educator/advocate, developed a detailed theory of rhetoric (led to 5 Canons), said the first essential of being a good orator was to be a good man
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Augustine of Hippo
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4th century AD Christian writer/preacher. suggested that rhetoric can be used to help impart truths that are already known, knowledge of rhetoric can be helpful in interpreting scripture -key in understanding how humans use signs and symbols to express ideas and to an understanding of the concept of language
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Moors
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Muslims from North Africa that invaded Spain. had the writings from Alexandria library and left them when retreating from the Christians in the crusades
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Thomas Aquinas
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Christian scholar that showed that Aristotle’s Logic could support Christian teaching–church then allowed more serious study of ancient Greek works.
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Humanism
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an intellectual movement that began in Italy during the 15th century and spread throughout Europe, sought to fully understand, develop, and celebrate human nature and potential–led to the Renaissance
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Ramus
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Renaissance scholar who said the proper domain of rhetoric includes only style, memory, and delivery-narrowed the scope of rhetoric
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printing press
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Gutenberg-1st book Bible in 1456-gave birth to mass communication and the concept of mass production
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Francis Bacon
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proposed a scientific approach in the study of human communication, suggesting the scientific study of gestures
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John Bulwer
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addressed the nonverbal expressions of thoughts and feelings in Chirologia–marked the beginning of scientific research on communication and the study of nonverbal comm.
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John Locke
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coined the term communication and gave it its modern meaning–communication provides the mechanism by which humans can co-exist and reap the benefits of society w/o compromising their individual sovereignty
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George Campbell
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late 18th–added strong psych focus to understanding of persuasion. suggested rhetoric can be used to express ideas and create moods as well as to argue rationally.
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Hugh Blair
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late 18th–preached that it was important to exercise good taste in speaking-ultimately it is emotion, not reason, that drives human action and emotions aroused in an audience can be contagious
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Richard Whately
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late 18th-Anglican archbishop-viewed logic as a tool of rhetoric. his work established rational standards by which arguments could be judged as adequate or inadequate
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Thomas Sheridan
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believed that, by learning the principles of proper pronunciation, correct posture, and graceful movement, people can learn to present themselves well in polite society (elocution)–said the spoken word has qualities that the written word does not have
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Gilbert Austin
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developed a detailed theory of elocution
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Neo-Aristotlean
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focus on public speeches; became the most common approach to comm. study in American universities from 1930s-1965; curricula was developed based on classical rhetorical theory and aimed to improve practical comm. skills; how speakers adapt to all the specific conditions and use specific means of persuasion to achieve their purposes (Rhetoric to them-art of discovering all available means of persuasion in a given situation) Legacy-public speaking, rhetorical criticism, argumentation and debate, credited with bringing A.’s ideas about comm. to the 21st century
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criticisms of Neo-A. from Edwin Black
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1. speeches represent only a tiny % of human comm and are hardly the most important aspect 2. if one is interested in determining the effectiveness of a speech or message, social sciences offer better methods that Rhet criticism 3. effectiveness is not the only method of evaluating a speech
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Steven Toulmin
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Argumentation theory, describes how people do argue rather than how they should argue: claim; data/evidence; warrant argument is an interactive process
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heurmeneutics
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the systematic analysis of messages or texts to explore their meaning
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I.A. Richards
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20th century-proposed a new rhetoric to examine how people understand and interpret messages, not how they are persuaded through oratory–meaning occurs not through words themselves but in people’s thoughts and depends on context (important contribution to heurmeneutics)
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Kenneth Burke
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developed a fundamentally new theory of rhetoric, suggesting that a speaker persuades not by appealing to logic and emotion, but by achieving identity with the audience (dramatism)–an essential function of language is to induce coop in beings that by nature respond to symbols–audiences respond to content of the message AND the whole situation in which the message is a part
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Burke’s dramastitic pentad
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act-act of communicating the message agent-person or entity doing the act agency-the means including channel, institutions, and so on, by which the act is accomplished scene-the context in which the act takes place purposed-purpose for which the speaker acts
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Jurgen Habermas
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contemporary critical theory-suggested 3 domains of human knowledge: work, language, power -focused his critical theory on the effects of human discourse and comm systems -primary purpose of rhet criticism is liberation and purpose of understanding persuasion is to defend oneself against it
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postmodernism
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argued that societies damage themselves by over relying on science and technology-suspicious of social science as an approach
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Jacques Derrida
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postmodernist, developed method of criticism called \”deconstruction\”- sought to identify what a message excludes as well as includes, weakens and strengthens, forgets and remembers
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epistemics/ Robert L. Scott
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people speak and act before they know and it is through speaking and acting that humans come to know-rhetoric is a way of knowing; it is epistemic
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Leland Griffin
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developed a method for rhetorically analyzing social and political movements that are active over time (movement studies)
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Lloyd Bitzer
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developed a systematic process for analyzing the situational context of a speech, providing a method to examine an important aspect of any speech that had not been adequately addressed in A.’s work (rhetorical situation)
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Ernest Bormann
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observed that people use narratives to share their views about life; express and learn these outlooks by telling and listening to stories (fantasy theme analysis and symbolic convergence 51)
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rhetorical visions
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(Bormann) views about how life works
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Kathleen Hall Jamieson and Karlyn Kohrs Campbell
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used the concept of genre as a way of focusing on the interdependence of purpose, lines of argument, stylistic choices, and requirements arising from context–rhetorical genres develop as conventions for fitting the content and style of a message to the purpose and context in which it is delivered
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Walter Fisher
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narrative paradigm-suggests that stories incorporate all the rationality of traditional argument as well as evokes listener’s values
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praxis
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the competent and skilled practice of a specialized art
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social science
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descriptive not prescriptive gain knowledge through theory building and testing
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Quantitative
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concerned with comparisons across diff groups of people, when it is desirable to generalize results to a larger pop, and when theoretical concepts can be effectively represented in numerical terms
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Qualitative
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when researchers seek to deeply comprehend highly complex events as they occur in the world and when understanding the context in which events occur is important
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August Comte
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advocated establishment of sociology (study of human society) introduced positivism
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positivism
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refer to the use of modern scientific methods to study human society (quantitative researchers tend to be positivists)
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Harold Lasswell
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who says what to whom in what channel with what effect–encouraged devel of content analysis, study propaganda
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Elton Mayo
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lighting in office research-discovered it was attention to workers that improved work
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Carl Hovland
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effects of persuasion 1940s and 50s
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Paul Lazarsfeld
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Wilbur Schramm
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organized the first interdisciplinary doctoral program in mass comm, in the School of Journalism at the U. of Iowa during the war 1943
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Irving Janis
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developed theory of groupthink
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Goffman
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viewed humans as actors engaged in performances that influenced and were influenced by their personalities–social behavior in daily life
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Social Science
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interpersonal comm-practical and theo. group discussion (small group)-pract. Comm. theory-theoretical Org. comm.-practical intercultural- pract and theo research methods-theo
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Humanistic
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Argumentation and debate-practical rhetorical criticism- theoretical
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BOTH
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public speaking-practical persuasion-practical and theoretical
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Areas of Specialization in Comm. Research
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Rhetorical theory and criticism argumentation interpersonal comm. relational comm. small group comm. organizational comm. mass comm. and media studies political comm. PR intercultural comm. family comm. health comm. conflict management nonverbal comm. comm. technology and telecomm. studies
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Humanistic View (figure)
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Rise of Rhetoric Cornell School (1910-1950) Turbulent 1960s New Rhetoric & New Focus on Interpersonal Comm. (1960-70s) Postmodern Interpretive Studies: Critical Theory and Heurmeneutics (1970s-now)
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Scientific View (figure)
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\”Speech Science\” (1919) The Rise of Comm. Technology and Study of Mass Comm.: Media Effects (1930-60) WWII Research Coalescence of Comm. Research (1940s) Study of Persuasion & Group Interaction (1950s-70s) Rise of Quantitative Methods (1950s-now) Interpersonal Comm Research (1970s-now) Surge in Applied Comm Research (1970s-now)

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