Biology Unit 1 study guide

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excretion
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the process when waste materials of cell activity are passed from the cell to the environment
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vacuole
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stores enzymes and waste products; shape: large sphere
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examples of cells
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plants/animals; animal: flexible membrane, no definate shape; plant: definite shape
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cytosol
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gelatin-like aqueous solution that dissolves salts, minerals, and organic molecules
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cell membrane
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surrounds entire cell; selectively permeable ( allows certain things to enter and exit); composed of a lipid bilayer ( 2 layers of fatty acids) and proteins; peripheral protiens are attached to both surfaces of membrane
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tissue
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group of cells that work together to perform specialized functions
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fact
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the element phosphorus and sulfer are abundant; ratio between volume and surface area limits the size of the cells
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examples of organelles
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lysosome, mitochondria, chloroplast, smooth/rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies
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Robert Hooke
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English scientist who examined a thin slice of cork in his report Micrographia; 1st to look at dead plant cells in 1668
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levels of organization
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organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ system, organisms, species, populations, communities, ecosystems, biosphere
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independent variable
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the potential cause or manipulated variable “I”
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dependent variable
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the effect, or responding variable; what changes as a result of what “I” changed
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Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
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prepares protiens for export (rough ER); synthesis steroids, regualtes calcium levels, breaks down toxic substances (smooth ER); shape: rough and smooth
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Ribosome
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organizes the synthesis of proteins; shape: free moving and attached (most numerous and smallest organelle)
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mitochondrion
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transfers energy from organizc compounds to ATP; shape: inner folds “cristae”
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compound microscope
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a light microscope
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electron microscope
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transmission electron microscope (TEM) “must slice specimen”; scanning electron microscope (SEM) ” 3-D image; specimen must be sprayed with metal”
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Rudolf Virchow
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physician studying how disease affects living things who discovered that all cells come from other cells, which established the cell theory
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magnify
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the power to enlarge the appearance of an image
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resolution
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the power or ability to show detail; typical for students- 400x
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cell theory
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all living things are composed of one or more cells; cells are the basic units of structure and function in an organism; cells come only from the reproduction of existing cells
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cell
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smallest functional unit of life; smallest unit of matter that can carry on all the processes of life
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parts of an experiment
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independent variablel; dependent variable; controlled variable
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form a hypothesis
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proposes a cause/effect relationship between 2 variables; if “x” happens then “y” will happen
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make an observation
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performed in all steps of the scientific method; mostly done at the beginning of an experiment tp observe a problem
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Form a conclusion
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the process of reviewing the evidence and deciding whether or not the results support the hypothesis
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microscope
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an instrument that enlarges an image and is used to study objects too small to be viewed with the necked eye
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Dujardin
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French biologist that viewed living cells and found protoplasm
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absorption
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the process of cells absorbing water, food molecules, ions, and other necessary material from the environment
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design an experiment
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the process of setting up and organizing an experiment which includes the control group “placebo” and experimental “medicine” group
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catalysts
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enzymes in ithe cell that speed up the “digestion” or breaking down reactions
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9 processes of life
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nutrition, digestion, absorption, biosynthesis, respiration, secretion, response, reproduction
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Pasteur
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French chemist who finally defeated the spontaneous generation theory with his experiment (living things come from living things)
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organelle characteristics
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between the cell membrane and nucleus is cytoplasm that contains the organelle of the cell; bathed in gelatin-like aqueous solution called cytosol
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Matthais Schteiden
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German botanist who proposed that all plants are made up of cells
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digestion
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the process that breaks down food into simpler forms in order for cells to use them
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3 components of eukaryotic cells
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cell membrane, nucleus, other organelles
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eukaryotic cells
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organisms whose cells contain a membrane bound nucleus and other organelles
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prokaryotic cells
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unicellular organisms that lack a membrane bound nucleus and organelles (bacteria)
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2 main types of cells
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prokaryotic; eukaryotic
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example of secretion
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salivary amylase, located in the saliva, breaks down carbs in the mouth
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Thomas Schwann
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German zoologist that stated all animals are made up of cells
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fact
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an organism’s size depends on the number, not the size of its cells. ex: elephant and ant cells are the same size but the elephant has more cells than the ant.)
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cytology
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the study of cells
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process of cells
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all processes of life involve energy changes that take place at the level of the cell
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controlled variable
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the variable that holds constant; depends on experiment “placebo”
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collect and analyze data
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the process of gathering the recorded data and evaluatng the results
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nutrition
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the process of which food molecules are necessary to supply both energy and building materials in cells
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urination
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the process of getting rid of liquid waste
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fact
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scientists have made many new discoveries due to the electron microscope and centrifuges along with many other tools
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example of response
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movement : a response to stimuli ( heat, light, or pressure)
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histology
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the study of tissues that are composed of cells
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examples of organ systems
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digestive systems, nervous system, circulatory system, circulatory system, etc.
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organelles
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membrane bound structures that supports the life of a cell; act as “little organs”
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Antonio Leeuwenhoek
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Dutch microscope maker that was the first person to observe living cells
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steps of the scientific method
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make an observation, form a hypothesis, design/complete experiment, collect/ analyze data, form conclusion, communicate results
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autotroph
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an organism that makes its own food; producer (plants, some bacteria, algae)
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fact
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both living and nonliving things are composed of molecules made up from chemical elements such as Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen
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reproduction
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the process in which cells divide from time to time; (mitosis and meiosis)
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mitosis
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asexual reproduction; one parent cell divides to produce two new daughter cells
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meiosis
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sexual reproduction; two parent cells (gametes) combine
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secretion
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the process when certain cells synthesize molecules of substances such as vitamins and hormones
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organ systems
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group of organs that work together for vital llfe functions
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organs
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groups of tissues performing specific functions to sustain life
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examples of organs
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heart, stomach, brain, kidney, etc.
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Redi
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in 1668, an Italian scientist who attacked the idea of spontaneous generation (“life” or cells can form in thin air)
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examples of tissue
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human: nervous, epithelial, etc, ; plant: vascular, dermal, etc.
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response
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the process when cell activities may change in response to stimuli from the environment such as heat, light, or pressure
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respiration
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the process in which chemical energy is released when certain organic molecules, especially glucose, are split; necessary for all activities
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fact
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the discovery of cells was made possible in the early 17th century by the development of the microscope
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transporation
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when plants get rid of wastes “water”
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biosynthesis
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the process in which cells organize substances such as lipids and carbs, and form their own specific proteins; necessary for growth
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defication
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the process of getting rid of solid waste
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heterotroph
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organisms that have to require their food to produce energy; consumer
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cell diversity
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not all cells are alike; cells vary in size, shape, and internal orgainization; the bosy contains a variety of organelles
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nucleus and nucleolus
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stores heredity info in DNA; synthesizes RNA and ribosomes; maintains shape with the help of nuclear matrix; nucleous is the site where ribosmes are synthsized; surrounded by nuclear envelope; shape: spherical
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microfilaments and microtubules
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contribute to the support, movement, and division of cells; in cytoskeleton, and made of a protein actin; shape: thread-like. tube-like
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lysosome
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digests molecules, old organelles, and foreign substances; shape: small spherical
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Golgi apparatus
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processing, packaging, and secreting organelle of the cell; shape: system of membranes
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fact
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cell walls, large vacuoles, and plastids are found in the cells of plants and some other eukaryotes, but not in the cells of animals
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cilia and flagella
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propels cells through the environment and moves materials over the cell surface; shape: hair-like or whip-like
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plastids
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stores food or pigments; ex: chloroplast- transfers energy from light to compounds; contains thylakoids (sacs that contain pigment)
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cell wall
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supports and protects cell; found only in plants; lies outside the membrane ; shape: rectangular

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