Biology Unit 1 study guide

the process when waste materials of cell activity are passed from the cell to the environment
stores enzymes and waste products; shape: large sphere
examples of cells
plants/animals; animal: flexible membrane, no definate shape; plant: definite shape
gelatin-like aqueous solution that dissolves salts, minerals, and organic molecules
cell membrane
surrounds entire cell; selectively permeable ( allows certain things to enter and exit); composed of a lipid bilayer ( 2 layers of fatty acids) and proteins; peripheral protiens are attached to both surfaces of membrane
group of cells that work together to perform specialized functions
the element phosphorus and sulfer are abundant; ratio between volume and surface area limits the size of the cells
examples of organelles
lysosome, mitochondria, chloroplast, smooth/rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies
Robert Hooke
English scientist who examined a thin slice of cork in his report Micrographia; 1st to look at dead plant cells in 1668
levels of organization
organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ system, organisms, species, populations, communities, ecosystems, biosphere
independent variable
the potential cause or manipulated variable “I”
dependent variable
the effect, or responding variable; what changes as a result of what “I” changed
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
prepares protiens for export (rough ER); synthesis steroids, regualtes calcium levels, breaks down toxic substances (smooth ER); shape: rough and smooth
organizes the synthesis of proteins; shape: free moving and attached (most numerous and smallest organelle)
transfers energy from organizc compounds to ATP; shape: inner folds “cristae”
compound microscope
a light microscope
electron microscope
transmission electron microscope (TEM) “must slice specimen”; scanning electron microscope (SEM) ” 3-D image; specimen must be sprayed with metal”
Rudolf Virchow
physician studying how disease affects living things who discovered that all cells come from other cells, which established the cell theory
the power to enlarge the appearance of an image
the power or ability to show detail; typical for students- 400x
cell theory
all living things are composed of one or more cells; cells are the basic units of structure and function in an organism; cells come only from the reproduction of existing cells
smallest functional unit of life; smallest unit of matter that can carry on all the processes of life
parts of an experiment
independent variablel; dependent variable; controlled variable
form a hypothesis
proposes a cause/effect relationship between 2 variables; if “x” happens then “y” will happen
make an observation
performed in all steps of the scientific method; mostly done at the beginning of an experiment tp observe a problem
Form a conclusion
the process of reviewing the evidence and deciding whether or not the results support the hypothesis
an instrument that enlarges an image and is used to study objects too small to be viewed with the necked eye
French biologist that viewed living cells and found protoplasm
the process of cells absorbing water, food molecules, ions, and other necessary material from the environment
design an experiment
the process of setting up and organizing an experiment which includes the control group “placebo” and experimental “medicine” group
enzymes in ithe cell that speed up the “digestion” or breaking down reactions
9 processes of life
nutrition, digestion, absorption, biosynthesis, respiration, secretion, response, reproduction
French chemist who finally defeated the spontaneous generation theory with his experiment (living things come from living things)
organelle characteristics
between the cell membrane and nucleus is cytoplasm that contains the organelle of the cell; bathed in gelatin-like aqueous solution called cytosol
Matthais Schteiden
German botanist who proposed that all plants are made up of cells
the process that breaks down food into simpler forms in order for cells to use them
3 components of eukaryotic cells
cell membrane, nucleus, other organelles
eukaryotic cells
organisms whose cells contain a membrane bound nucleus and other organelles
prokaryotic cells
unicellular organisms that lack a membrane bound nucleus and organelles (bacteria)
2 main types of cells
prokaryotic; eukaryotic
example of secretion
salivary amylase, located in the saliva, breaks down carbs in the mouth
Thomas Schwann
German zoologist that stated all animals are made up of cells
an organism’s size depends on the number, not the size of its cells. ex: elephant and ant cells are the same size but the elephant has more cells than the ant.)
the study of cells
process of cells
all processes of life involve energy changes that take place at the level of the cell
controlled variable
the variable that holds constant; depends on experiment “placebo”
collect and analyze data
the process of gathering the recorded data and evaluatng the results
the process of which food molecules are necessary to supply both energy and building materials in cells
the process of getting rid of liquid waste
scientists have made many new discoveries due to the electron microscope and centrifuges along with many other tools
example of response
movement : a response to stimuli ( heat, light, or pressure)
the study of tissues that are composed of cells
examples of organ systems
digestive systems, nervous system, circulatory system, circulatory system, etc.
membrane bound structures that supports the life of a cell; act as “little organs”
Antonio Leeuwenhoek
Dutch microscope maker that was the first person to observe living cells
steps of the scientific method
make an observation, form a hypothesis, design/complete experiment, collect/ analyze data, form conclusion, communicate results
an organism that makes its own food; producer (plants, some bacteria, algae)
both living and nonliving things are composed of molecules made up from chemical elements such as Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen
the process in which cells divide from time to time; (mitosis and meiosis)
asexual reproduction; one parent cell divides to produce two new daughter cells
sexual reproduction; two parent cells (gametes) combine
the process when certain cells synthesize molecules of substances such as vitamins and hormones
organ systems
group of organs that work together for vital llfe functions
groups of tissues performing specific functions to sustain life
examples of organs
heart, stomach, brain, kidney, etc.
in 1668, an Italian scientist who attacked the idea of spontaneous generation (“life” or cells can form in thin air)
examples of tissue
human: nervous, epithelial, etc, ; plant: vascular, dermal, etc.
the process when cell activities may change in response to stimuli from the environment such as heat, light, or pressure
the process in which chemical energy is released when certain organic molecules, especially glucose, are split; necessary for all activities
the discovery of cells was made possible in the early 17th century by the development of the microscope
when plants get rid of wastes “water”
the process in which cells organize substances such as lipids and carbs, and form their own specific proteins; necessary for growth
the process of getting rid of solid waste
organisms that have to require their food to produce energy; consumer
cell diversity
not all cells are alike; cells vary in size, shape, and internal orgainization; the bosy contains a variety of organelles
nucleus and nucleolus
stores heredity info in DNA; synthesizes RNA and ribosomes; maintains shape with the help of nuclear matrix; nucleous is the site where ribosmes are synthsized; surrounded by nuclear envelope; shape: spherical
microfilaments and microtubules
contribute to the support, movement, and division of cells; in cytoskeleton, and made of a protein actin; shape: thread-like. tube-like
digests molecules, old organelles, and foreign substances; shape: small spherical
Golgi apparatus
processing, packaging, and secreting organelle of the cell; shape: system of membranes
cell walls, large vacuoles, and plastids are found in the cells of plants and some other eukaryotes, but not in the cells of animals
cilia and flagella
propels cells through the environment and moves materials over the cell surface; shape: hair-like or whip-like
stores food or pigments; ex: chloroplast- transfers energy from light to compounds; contains thylakoids (sacs that contain pigment)
cell wall
supports and protects cell; found only in plants; lies outside the membrane ; shape: rectangular