Biology MTEL

Anton van Leeuwenhoek
made 300x microscopes in 1650s described microscopic life

Koch’s postulates
1. The same pathogen must be found in ever instance of the disease 2. The pathogen must be isolated and grown in culture 3. The disease must result when experimental subjects are inoculated 4. The same pathogen must be isolated from the experimental subject

Deca-
10

Hecto-
100

Kilo-
1000

Mega-
1,000,000

Giga-
1,000,000,000

Tetra-
1,000,000,000,000`

Deci-
.1

Centi-
.01

Milli-
.001

Micro-
.000,001

Nano-
.000,000,001

Pico-
.000,000,000,001

Chromatography
uses capillary action to separate substances, such as plant pigments

Spectrography
Measures wavelengths of light absorbed and transmitted by a pigmented solution

Bacteria cell wall
made of amino sugars (glycoproteins), targeted by penicillin

Bacteria capsule
some bacteria, made of poly saccarides for extra protection

Bacterial evolution
3.5 mya

Chromatin
Nucleic acid and proteins chromosomes are made of

Chromoplasts
Make and store colored pigments

Amyloplasts
Store starch as a food reserve

Methanagen
Obligate anaerobe that produces methane

Halobacteria
Obligate on concentrated brine solution

Thermoacidophile
Obligate in hot, acid springs

Oligosaccharides
act as markers on cell wall

Pinocytosis
the cell takes in extracellular fluid in small vesicles

Hydrolysis
Water is added, and molecules are separated

Glycolysis
Occurs in cytoplasm, does not require O2, driven by enzymes

Krebs cycle
Converts pyruvic acid to acetyl CoA to Citric acid, two turns

Produced by Krebs cycle
3mol NADH, 1mol FADH2, 1mol ATP

Light reactions
convert solar energy to chemical energy, splits water, making O2 and NADPH

Dark reaction
Calvin cycle, incorporates CO2 into sugar using NADPH to reduce carbon with ATP

Chlorophyll a
reflects green/blue light, absorbs red most common

Chlorophyll b
reflects green/yellow light; absorbs red

Carotenoids
reflects yellow/orange light; absorbs violet/blue

CO2 + H2O + energy
C6H12O6 + O2

Photosystem 1
chlorophyll A absorbs light at 700 makes ATP cannot happen independantly

Photosystem 2
absorbs at 680 makes ATP + NADPH2 + O2

Alcoholic fermentation
converts pyruvate to ethanol in yeast and bacteria

Lactic acid fermentation
pyruvate converts lactate in animals and bacteria

Helicase
unwinds DNA for replication

Topoisomerases
relieve tension of unwinding

Single strand binding proteins
SSBs bind to strands to stabilize them

Primase
adds ribosomes to DNA to initiate synthesis, making primer

Okazaki fragments
lagging strand framents

DNA polymerases after replication
remove RNA primer, binds to nick between Okazaki fragment and primer

DNA ligase
seals nicks

DNA polymerase proofreads
3′-5′, repairs 5′-3′

Initiation, mRNA
promoter binds to DNA and transcribes mRNA

Elongation, mRNA
mRNA is synthesized and separates

Termination, mRNA
caused by factors at the end of the gene. mRNA released

mRNA postranscriptional processing
1. base with a methyl is added to 5′ end to protect from degradation and for ribosomal binding 2. 100-300 adenines are added to 3′ end 3. Indrons removed

translation initiation
methylated tRNA binds to ribosome and attaches to mRNA

translation elongation
tRNAs carry amino acids to ribosome and attach according to mRNA

translation termination
ribosome reads stop codon UAA/UAG/UGA

Uracil
binds to adenine in RNA instead of thymine

Thymine
binds to adenine in DNA, replaced by uracil

Adenine
binds to thymine or uracil

Cytosine
binds to Guanine

Guanine
binds to cytosine

Duplication (mutation)
a gene is repeated

Deletion
a gene is left out

Inversion
a segment is flipped

Insertion
a segment from elsewhere is inserted

Breakage
a segment is lost

Frame shift mutation
changes the reading frame

Silent mutation
does not change the amino acid coding

Mis-sense mutation
changes the amino acid sequence

Loss-of-function mutation
alters structure of protein

lac operon
codes for enzymes to convert lactose, contains lac z, lac y and lac a, a promoter and an operator

restriction enzyme
a bacterial enzyme that cuts DNA at specific locations

vector
bacterial plasmid, virus or bacteriophage that vectors genes

recombinant DNA
transports genes across species

polymerase chain reaction
quick copying of DNA

prophase
1st phase chromosomes condense, nucleolus disappears and nucleus fragments spindles form

prometaphase
microtubules attach to chromosomes at centromeres

metaphase
2nd phase chromosomes line up

anaphase
3rd phase centromeres spilt in half, chromosomes separate, pulled to either end of the cell

telophase
nucli form, cell divides

cytokinesis
cell division

interphase G1
cell grows

interphase S
DNA replication

interphase G2
organelles divide

non-disjunction
sex cells receive the wrong number of chromosomes

chorionic villus sampling
samples fetus tissue to test for disorders

hardy-weinburg theory
1 = p2 + 2pq + q2

oparin and haldane
1920 developed lacking atmospheric O2 theory

Miller
1950 showed polymer creation with spark

Rebek
1991 synthesized organic material that replicates itself

gradulaism
evolution happened slowly, constanly

punctuated equilibrium
evolution happened quickly, punctuated by periods of static

prezygotic reproductive isolation
prevents cross-species mating

postzygotic reproductive isolation
prevents cross-species valid offspring

allopatric speciation
speciation without geographic overlap

sympatric speciation
speciation as a result of rapid accumilation of genetic differences

phylogeny
related by evolution

homologous characteristics
traits with the same genetic basis but have evolved differently

analogous characteristics
structures with different evolution but used for similar purposes

convergent evolution
development of similar adaptations by unrelated organisms

phylogenetic tree
tree of life

cladistics
the study of the relationship of organisms based on shared characteristics

properties of life
1. order; complex organization, 2. reproduction, 3. energy utilization, make and/or use energy to do work, 4. growth and development, using DNA, 5. adaptation to the environment, homeostasis, response to stimuli, evolution

bacteriophage
a virus that affects bacteria

halophile
lives in high salt concentration

bacilli
rod shaped

cocci
round

spirilli
spiral

gram positive
dyes purple, simple cell walls, replicates DNA in rolling circle

gram negative
dyes pink complex cell wall more toxic,more resistant replicates DNA bidirectionally

peptidoglycin
component of bacterial cell walls

Archaezoa
protist that lack mitochondria, and golgi apparatus and have multiple nuclii

chromista
diatoms, brown algae, and golden algae, have chlorophyll c

lycophyta
clubmosses, seedless

ectoderm
becomes epidermis

mesoderm
becomes muscles and other organs

endoderm
becomes gut

sponges
have no true tissue

diploblastic
two germ layers; no mesoderm

triploblastic
three germ layers

acoelomates
no defined body cavitiy; flatworms, obigate parasites

pseudocoelomates
body cavity but not lined with mesoderm (nemotodes)

coelomates
have true fluid filled body cavity called coelum

protostomes
the first opening becomes the mouth and the second the anus, the mesoderm splits to form the coelum.

deuterostomes
the mouth develops from the second opening and the anus from the first; the mesoderm becomes the coelum. higher animals

cleavage
the first divisions of the fertilized egg

bastula
a hollow ball of undifferentiated cells

gastulation
tissue differentiates into separate germ layers

neuralation
the nervous system develops

organogenesis
the organs develop

malpighina tubes
tubes in insects that collect waste and excrete it

porifera
sponges

platyhelminthes
flatworms, have true muscles

nematocyst
cnidarian stinging cell

annelida
sigmented worms

echinodermata
starfish

aggatha
jawless fish

chondrichthythes
cartilage fish

osteichthyes
bony fish

epithelial cells
epidermal skin cells

keratin
waterproofing protein that protects skin

dermis
second layer of skin, contains blood vessels, hair follicles, sweat glands and sebaceous glands

sebum
oily secretion that maintains acidic pH (3-5) on skin

cardiac output
liters/minutes

heart rate
beats/min

stroke volume
mL/stroke

sinoatrial node
nerve center that originates heart beat impulse

blood pH
7.4 pH

erythocytes
red blood cells

leukocytes
white blood cells

non-specific immune mechanism
physical barriers and white blood cell inflammatory response

neutrophils
majority of white blood cells

specific immune mechanism
recognizes specific foreign bodies and destroys them

antgien
foreign body that elicits response

antibody
recognizes and latches onto antigen, recognizes repeat invaders

immunity
the body’s ability to recognize and destroy invaders

humoral response
activated by free antigens b cells cause plama to secrete antibodies which bind to antigen and signal phagocytes

cell mediated response
infected cells activate t cells which bind to the infected cell and destroy it

MHC
unique cell identifiers, cause transplants to be rejected

pharynx
throat

peristalisis
muscle contractions to assist digestion

pyloric sphinctor
leads out of stomach

meninges
connective tissue protects the CNS

somatic nervous system
conscious control

autonomic nervous system
involuntary control

endocrine system
system of hormones

peptide hormones
amino acid based

hormone receptors
on cell, activate ATP to act as hormone inside cell

hypothalamus
lower brain, activates pituitary gland

pituitary
releases growth hormone and anti-diuretic hormone

thyroid gland
near trachea; lowers blood calcium levels, maintains metabolism + homeostasis

gonads
in sex organs releases sex hormones

androgens
male sex hormones

pancreas
releases insulin and glucagen

glucagen
opposite of insulin

gametogenesis
the development and maturation of sex cells through meiosis

endothelium
thin layer of cells that lines heart cavities and blood vessels

tubil ligation
surgical sterilization

implantation
happens 2-3 after contraception, causes human chorionic gonadtrophin

trophic levels
energy and chemical flow in population through feeding relationships

littoral biome
from the tide line to the open sea

epiplargic biome
the sunlit layer of the open sea

benthic biome
the bottom of the open sea

pelargic biome
the middle of the open sea

taiga
coniferous near-polar biome, largest terrestrial biome

chaparral
mild winters, long hot dry summers, few trees,

biogeochemical cycles
water, nitrogen, carbon

anticodon
the triplet that is opposite to the mRNA sequence

transpiration
pulls water up vascular tissue

pepsin
hydrolyzes proteins

pancreas
makes digestive enzymes

liver
makes bile