Biology MTEL

Anton van Leeuwenhoek
made 300x microscopes in 1650s described microscopic life
Koch’s postulates
1. The same pathogen must be found in ever instance of the disease 2. The pathogen must be isolated and grown in culture 3. The disease must result when experimental subjects are inoculated 4. The same pathogen must be isolated from the experimental subject
Deca-
10
Hecto-
100
Kilo-
1000
Mega-
1,000,000
Giga-
1,000,000,000
Tetra-
1,000,000,000,000`
Deci-
.1
Centi-
.01
Milli-
.001
Micro-
.000,001
Nano-
.000,000,001
Pico-
.000,000,000,001
Chromatography
uses capillary action to separate substances, such as plant pigments
Spectrography
Measures wavelengths of light absorbed and transmitted by a pigmented solution
Bacteria cell wall
made of amino sugars (glycoproteins), targeted by penicillin
Bacteria capsule
some bacteria, made of poly saccarides for extra protection
Bacterial evolution
3.5 mya
Chromatin
Nucleic acid and proteins chromosomes are made of
Chromoplasts
Make and store colored pigments
Amyloplasts
Store starch as a food reserve
Methanagen
Obligate anaerobe that produces methane
Halobacteria
Obligate on concentrated brine solution
Thermoacidophile
Obligate in hot, acid springs
Oligosaccharides
act as markers on cell wall
Pinocytosis
the cell takes in extracellular fluid in small vesicles
Hydrolysis
Water is added, and molecules are separated
Glycolysis
Occurs in cytoplasm, does not require O2, driven by enzymes
Krebs cycle
Converts pyruvic acid to acetyl CoA to Citric acid, two turns
Produced by Krebs cycle
3mol NADH, 1mol FADH2, 1mol ATP
Light reactions
convert solar energy to chemical energy, splits water, making O2 and NADPH
Dark reaction
Calvin cycle, incorporates CO2 into sugar using NADPH to reduce carbon with ATP
Chlorophyll a
reflects green/blue light, absorbs red most common
Chlorophyll b
reflects green/yellow light; absorbs red
Carotenoids
reflects yellow/orange light; absorbs violet/blue
CO2 + H2O + energy
C6H12O6 + O2
Photosystem 1
chlorophyll A absorbs light at 700 makes ATP cannot happen independantly
Photosystem 2
absorbs at 680 makes ATP + NADPH2 + O2
Alcoholic fermentation
converts pyruvate to ethanol in yeast and bacteria
Lactic acid fermentation
pyruvate converts lactate in animals and bacteria
Helicase
unwinds DNA for replication
Topoisomerases
relieve tension of unwinding
Single strand binding proteins
SSBs bind to strands to stabilize them
Primase
adds ribosomes to DNA to initiate synthesis, making primer
Okazaki fragments
lagging strand framents
DNA polymerases after replication
remove RNA primer, binds to nick between Okazaki fragment and primer
DNA ligase
seals nicks
DNA polymerase proofreads
3′-5′, repairs 5′-3′
Initiation, mRNA
promoter binds to DNA and transcribes mRNA
Elongation, mRNA
mRNA is synthesized and separates
Termination, mRNA
caused by factors at the end of the gene. mRNA released
mRNA postranscriptional processing
1. base with a methyl is added to 5′ end to protect from degradation and for ribosomal binding 2. 100-300 adenines are added to 3′ end 3. Indrons removed
translation initiation
methylated tRNA binds to ribosome and attaches to mRNA
translation elongation
tRNAs carry amino acids to ribosome and attach according to mRNA
translation termination
ribosome reads stop codon UAA/UAG/UGA
Uracil
binds to adenine in RNA instead of thymine
Thymine
binds to adenine in DNA, replaced by uracil
Adenine
binds to thymine or uracil
Cytosine
binds to Guanine
Guanine
binds to cytosine
Duplication (mutation)
a gene is repeated
Deletion
a gene is left out
Inversion
a segment is flipped
Insertion
a segment from elsewhere is inserted
Breakage
a segment is lost
Frame shift mutation
changes the reading frame
Silent mutation
does not change the amino acid coding
Mis-sense mutation
changes the amino acid sequence
Loss-of-function mutation
alters structure of protein
lac operon
codes for enzymes to convert lactose, contains lac z, lac y and lac a, a promoter and an operator
restriction enzyme
a bacterial enzyme that cuts DNA at specific locations
vector
bacterial plasmid, virus or bacteriophage that vectors genes
recombinant DNA
transports genes across species
polymerase chain reaction
quick copying of DNA
prophase
1st phase chromosomes condense, nucleolus disappears and nucleus fragments spindles form
prometaphase
microtubules attach to chromosomes at centromeres
metaphase
2nd phase chromosomes line up
anaphase
3rd phase centromeres spilt in half, chromosomes separate, pulled to either end of the cell
telophase
nucli form, cell divides
cytokinesis
cell division
interphase G1
cell grows
interphase S
DNA replication
interphase G2
organelles divide
non-disjunction
sex cells receive the wrong number of chromosomes
chorionic villus sampling
samples fetus tissue to test for disorders
hardy-weinburg theory
1 = p2 + 2pq + q2
oparin and haldane
1920 developed lacking atmospheric O2 theory
Miller
1950 showed polymer creation with spark
Rebek
1991 synthesized organic material that replicates itself
gradulaism
evolution happened slowly, constanly
punctuated equilibrium
evolution happened quickly, punctuated by periods of static
prezygotic reproductive isolation
prevents cross-species mating
postzygotic reproductive isolation
prevents cross-species valid offspring
allopatric speciation
speciation without geographic overlap
sympatric speciation
speciation as a result of rapid accumilation of genetic differences
phylogeny
related by evolution
homologous characteristics
traits with the same genetic basis but have evolved differently
analogous characteristics
structures with different evolution but used for similar purposes
convergent evolution
development of similar adaptations by unrelated organisms
phylogenetic tree
tree of life
cladistics
the study of the relationship of organisms based on shared characteristics
properties of life
1. order; complex organization, 2. reproduction, 3. energy utilization, make and/or use energy to do work, 4. growth and development, using DNA, 5. adaptation to the environment, homeostasis, response to stimuli, evolution
bacteriophage
a virus that affects bacteria
halophile
lives in high salt concentration
bacilli
rod shaped
cocci
round
spirilli
spiral
gram positive
dyes purple, simple cell walls, replicates DNA in rolling circle
gram negative
dyes pink complex cell wall more toxic,more resistant replicates DNA bidirectionally
peptidoglycin
component of bacterial cell walls
Archaezoa
protist that lack mitochondria, and golgi apparatus and have multiple nuclii
chromista
diatoms, brown algae, and golden algae, have chlorophyll c
lycophyta
clubmosses, seedless
ectoderm
becomes epidermis
mesoderm
becomes muscles and other organs
endoderm
becomes gut
sponges
have no true tissue
diploblastic
two germ layers; no mesoderm
triploblastic
three germ layers
acoelomates
no defined body cavitiy; flatworms, obigate parasites
pseudocoelomates
body cavity but not lined with mesoderm (nemotodes)
coelomates
have true fluid filled body cavity called coelum
protostomes
the first opening becomes the mouth and the second the anus, the mesoderm splits to form the coelum.
deuterostomes
the mouth develops from the second opening and the anus from the first; the mesoderm becomes the coelum. higher animals
cleavage
the first divisions of the fertilized egg
bastula
a hollow ball of undifferentiated cells
gastulation
tissue differentiates into separate germ layers
neuralation
the nervous system develops
organogenesis
the organs develop
malpighina tubes
tubes in insects that collect waste and excrete it
porifera
sponges
platyhelminthes
flatworms, have true muscles
nematocyst
cnidarian stinging cell
annelida
sigmented worms
echinodermata
starfish
aggatha
jawless fish
chondrichthythes
cartilage fish
osteichthyes
bony fish
epithelial cells
epidermal skin cells
keratin
waterproofing protein that protects skin
dermis
second layer of skin, contains blood vessels, hair follicles, sweat glands and sebaceous glands
sebum
oily secretion that maintains acidic pH (3-5) on skin
cardiac output
liters/minutes
heart rate
beats/min
stroke volume
mL/stroke
sinoatrial node
nerve center that originates heart beat impulse
blood pH
7.4 pH
erythocytes
red blood cells
leukocytes
white blood cells
non-specific immune mechanism
physical barriers and white blood cell inflammatory response
neutrophils
majority of white blood cells
specific immune mechanism
recognizes specific foreign bodies and destroys them
antgien
foreign body that elicits response
antibody
recognizes and latches onto antigen, recognizes repeat invaders
immunity
the body’s ability to recognize and destroy invaders
humoral response
activated by free antigens b cells cause plama to secrete antibodies which bind to antigen and signal phagocytes
cell mediated response
infected cells activate t cells which bind to the infected cell and destroy it
MHC
unique cell identifiers, cause transplants to be rejected
pharynx
throat
peristalisis
muscle contractions to assist digestion
pyloric sphinctor
leads out of stomach
meninges
connective tissue protects the CNS
somatic nervous system
conscious control
autonomic nervous system
involuntary control
endocrine system
system of hormones
peptide hormones
amino acid based
hormone receptors
on cell, activate ATP to act as hormone inside cell
hypothalamus
lower brain, activates pituitary gland
pituitary
releases growth hormone and anti-diuretic hormone
thyroid gland
near trachea; lowers blood calcium levels, maintains metabolism + homeostasis
gonads
in sex organs releases sex hormones
androgens
male sex hormones
pancreas
releases insulin and glucagen
glucagen
opposite of insulin
gametogenesis
the development and maturation of sex cells through meiosis
endothelium
thin layer of cells that lines heart cavities and blood vessels
tubil ligation
surgical sterilization
implantation
happens 2-3 after contraception, causes human chorionic gonadtrophin
trophic levels
energy and chemical flow in population through feeding relationships
littoral biome
from the tide line to the open sea
epiplargic biome
the sunlit layer of the open sea
benthic biome
the bottom of the open sea
pelargic biome
the middle of the open sea
taiga
coniferous near-polar biome, largest terrestrial biome
chaparral
mild winters, long hot dry summers, few trees,
biogeochemical cycles
water, nitrogen, carbon
anticodon
the triplet that is opposite to the mRNA sequence
transpiration
pulls water up vascular tissue
pepsin
hydrolyzes proteins
pancreas
makes digestive enzymes
liver
makes bile