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Biology jp

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Which statement about living organisms is not correct?
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Living organisms create energy.
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A physician specializes in surgery involving the following group of organs: mouth, esophagus, stomach and intestines. Overall, this physician is specialized at which level of organization?
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organ system
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If a new anti-cancer drug is found effective in initial tests with mice, what do researchers conclude?
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The drug is effective in the mouse model; it must still be tested in humans.
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When you are overheated, you perspire, and when you are too cold, you shiver to generate heat. Which property of life is best represented by this example?
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homeostasis
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Corn belongs to the kingdom
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Plantae
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Some students consume large amounts of coffee and so-called energy drinks to help them stay alert when studying. You notice that many who engage in this practice seem to do poorly on exams. Suppose you want to investigate the relationship between caffeine consumption and exam performance. Which of the following statements would be an appropriate hypothesis?
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Students who consume large amounts of caffeine while studying will have lower exam scores than those who consume less caffeine
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All the organisms of various species living within a given area constitute a(n)
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community
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Which sequence of classification categories is in the proper order from least to most inclusive?
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species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom, domain
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The bones in a bird are hollow, reducing its weight for flight. This is an example of which characteristic of life?
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Living things are adapted
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Technology is the _________________________.
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application of scientific knowledge for a practical purpose
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Which of these is an example of inductive reasoning used to form a hypothesis?
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Every fungus that has ever been studied absorbs its food; therefore, food absorption is characteristic of fungi
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All the banded sunfish () in a pond would comprise a(n)
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population
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Using technology in the field of agriculture has enabled farmers to feed a growing human population.
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True
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Which of the following is one of the domains of life?
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Eukarya
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The common name for “cat” in Spanish is “gato” and in Chinese is “mao.” Which of the following statements pertaining to the use of scientific names instead of common names is false?
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The common name clearly identifies an organism as unique
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Which statement regarding the scientific method is false?
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Hypotheses are finally proven as absolutely true or false
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Which sequence correctly lists the different levels of biological organization, from the smallest and simplest to the largest and most complex?
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cells-tissues-organs-organ systems-organisms
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You have discovered a previously unknown organism. It is multicellular, with a filamentous form, and absorbs food from its environment. Upon microscopic examination, you see that the cells have nuclei. How would you classify this organism?
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kingdom Fungi
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Which classification category includes the most species?
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kingdom
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The layer where organisms can exist on the surface of the earth is the
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biosphere
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The most important factor that determines where major ecosystems are located on the globe is
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climate
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Which statement regarding the scientific method is false?
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Original hypotheses are formed after an experiment
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When comparing energy and chemicals in an ecosystem,
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chemicals cycle over and over again but energy flows through once
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An unmanned spacecraft has been sent to another planet to detect other life forms that might be quite different from those on Earth. If the probe could only send back one still picture, which property or properties of life would be most evident?
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organization
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All of the ATP molecules formed by the complete oxidation of glucose result from the electron transfer chain.
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False
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If A ® B ® C ® D ® E represents a metabolic pathway, then letter E would be
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a product
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If the carbons from glucose were radioactively labeled, what molecule(s) would end up with the label?
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carbon dioxide and citrate
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The various uses of ATP include all of the following except
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being a structural component of the cell membrane
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Which statement about producers and/or consumers is true?
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Producers produce more food than they use
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Glycolysis is likely to have evolved before the citric acid cycle and electron transport chain because
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it is found in all living organisms
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Heterotrophs
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are ultimately dependent upon preformed organic molecules made by producers
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The pH of blood is slightly basic. Which of the following would therefore be an expected pH for blood?
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7.4
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A genetic mutation can cause a change in the sequence of the 20 amino acids used to build proteins. Such a change is a change to the protein’s
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primary structure, but this will likely alter higher levels of structure as well
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During cellular respiration, what is reduced?
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oxygen
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Two glucose molecules can combine to form a disaccharide molecule and
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a water molecule
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Which of the following would not slow down the electron transport system’s production of ATP?
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Increase the pumping of hydrogen ions into the intermembrane space of the mitochondria
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Each enzyme has a particular substrate because enzymes
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have active sites complementary in shape to their substrates
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There is an inverse relationship between wavelength of light and amount of energy.
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True
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The Calvin cycle reactions are dependent upon a supply of
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carbon dioxide, NADPH, and ATP
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Potassium hydroxide (KOH) almost completely dissociates in aqueous solution into K+ and OH- and is therefore a
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strong base
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Which of the following is not a consequence of the lactate that results from fermentation in the muscles?
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It is stored in muscle cells for later ATP production
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Enzymes are specific. This means that they
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have a particular substrate
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The ____ will store pigments and toxins in plant cells.
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vacuole
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The cell theory states
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all cells come only from other cells.
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Which statement is false concerning movement of molecules across the cell membrane?
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Lipid molecules do not pass through easily.
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If the diploid chromosome number is 16, the chromosome number of each gamete will be
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8
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According to the endosymbiotic theory, eukaryotes became the mitochondria and chloroplasts found in prokaryotic cells.
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False
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We presume that meiosis evolved later than mitosis. What process would not have to evolve in cells undergoing meiosis in order to make this transition?
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a method of lining up single chromosomes along the metaphase plate
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If cells were moved to a low-gravity environment, such as in space exploration, a change would most likely be expected in the
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cytoskeleton
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If a cell stops at the G1 checkpoint, this is most likely due to what problem?
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There is DNA damage
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When you add sugar to your coffee or tea, the sugar is the
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solute
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Growth factors that are transported through the blood play what role in the cell cycle?
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an external signal to tell the cell whether or not to divide
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In plant cells, what is responsible for organizing the spindle?
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centrosomes
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Permeability refers to
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the extent to which a membrane allows a substance to pass through
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You are examining a cell under the microscope and see what appear to be four sister chromatids bound together and remnants of the nuclear envelope. What stage of meiosis are you looking at?
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prophase I
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Which intercellular junction allows for the rapid movement of small molecules or ions to flow from one animal cell to the next?
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gap junctions
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A researcher samples the waters of the boiling hot springs in Yellowstone National Park. Under the microscope, she observes what appear to be living cells in the water. If these indeed are living cells, what type of cell would they most likely be?
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prokaryotic, archaea
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Which is true of facilitated transport by carrier proteins?
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It is represented by the glucose carrier that can transport hundreds of molecules a second.
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You are looking at chromosome 1 in a human being. Assuming there is no crossing over, what is the source of all the genes on this chromosome?
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either the mother or father
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A major difference in the production of transgenic bacteria, plants, and animals is that
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Transgenic animals require the use of host animals to carry the genetically modified embryo while bacteria and plants do not require this.
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A nucleotide contains
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a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogen base
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The function of transfer RNA is to
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carry amino acids to ribosomes.
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Which of the following statements was discovered by information gained from the human genome project?
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Large sections of the human genome do not code for a polypeptide
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Gene pharming is
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the use of transgenic farm animals to produce pharmaceuticals.
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If a person has a portion of number 5 chromosome missing, they may have
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cri du chat syndrome
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One of the problems that limits the use of gene therapy is
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detrimental side effects from the inserted genes.
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A female that does not undergo puberty or menstruate or lacks breast development may have
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Turner syndrome
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An oncogene is
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a mutated form of a proto-oncogene.
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Alternative forms of a gene that influence the same trait and are found at the same location in homologous chromosomes are called Select one:
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alleles
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Peas and beans are considered legumes. Why?
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A legume is a fruit that splits along two sides when mature
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Which plant hormone is used by industry to cause fruits to drop from a tree?
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ethylene
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The layer that makes the Casparian strip waterproof is made of
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suberin and lignin
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The tissue layers of a leaf, from the upper surface to the lower surface, are
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cuticle, epidermis, palisade mesophyll, spongy mesophyll, epidermis, cuticle.
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Which of the following plant hormones prevents senescence and can initiate leaf growth?
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cytokinin
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Which of the following is arranged in proper order?
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pollination , fertilization , seed formation , germination
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The fibers that get stuck between your teeth when you eat celery are
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collenchyma
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Wood is composed of
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secondary xylem
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The tissue that regulates entrance of minerals into the vascular cylinder of a root is(are) the
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endodermis
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The new model of evolution that proposes that organisms spend most of their time in fairly unchanging form and undergo occasional bursts of speciation is called
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punctuated equilibrium
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Which of the following organisms is considered a microbe?
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bacteria
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According to Lamarck which variable would have the greatest influence on the evolution of an organism?
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the environment
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Which features set members of protist apart from the rest of the kingdoms?
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unicellular and microscopic
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Why are green algae placed in the Protista while plants are placed in a separate kingdom?
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Plants enclose and protect the embryo within the female plant while green algae do not.
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Structures in plants that produce the gametes are called
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gametophyte
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The reproductive parts of an angiosperm are the
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carpel and stamen
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Which type of nutrition is believed to have come first?
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heterotrophic
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The major insect body parts are
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head, thorax, and abdomen
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Which of these is a bivalve?
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oyster
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Which of the following would not show the five characteristics typically found in animals?
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Trypanosoma, a single celled organism that causes sleeping sickness in humans
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Which type of organism is characterized by having jointed appendages, ability to molt, and three sets of fused segments?
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arthropods
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The water vascular system of the echinoderm is used for
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locomotion
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Why are real bath sponges so soft?
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The harder silica or calcium spicules are absent and the softer spongin remains
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A closed circulatory system is found in
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earthworms
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Which body structure describes the freshwater hydra?
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a freely moving polyp with mouth pointing upward
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What system do the cnidaria have that sponges lack?
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nervous
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Which difference distinguishes protostomes from deuterostomes?
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embryonic development
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Which of the following statements about hydra morphology is correct?
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The hydra is a tube shaped polyp that has two layers of tissue
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Which type of muscle is involuntary and lacks striations?
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smooth
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What is the numerical relationship of neuroglial cells compared to neurons?
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There are about 9 neuroglial cells for every neuron
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Which of the following is a true statement about tissue fluid?
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.Tissue fluid is collected by the lymphatic capillaries.
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Which of the following lymphoid organs is largest during a person’s childhood but shrinks in adulthood?
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thymus
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Oxygenated blood enters the heart at the
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left atrium
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In which direction does a nerve impulse usually move?
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dendrite , cell body , axon
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Which of the following human digestive enzymes is incorrectly matched to its substrate?
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trypsin-nucleic acid
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The portion of the kidney which is continuous with the ureter is the
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renal pelvis
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Reabsorption of nutrient molecules occurs in what part of the nephron?
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proximal convoluted tubule
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At body temperature, which of these combinations is most likely to result in the digestion of fat?
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bile salts, sodium bicarbonate, lipase
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Which of the following is considered an accessory gland in the digestive system?
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pancreas
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How many openings does the bladder have?
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three
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Food is prevented from entering the trachea by the
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epiglottis
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An impulse traveling up the spinal cord first enters the brain at the
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medulla
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The monitoring of blood oxygen levels within the body is done by what type of receptor?
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chemoreceptor
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What is the greatest benefit of having three semicircular canals involved in detecting rotational equilibrium?
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It allows for one to be in each dimension of space.
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Which is a combination of physiological and psychological dependence?
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increasing a drug to get the same effect and preoccupation with trying to get more drugs
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The doctor tells you that you have anosmia. What is your problem?
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no sense of smell
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Glaucoma is caused by
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inadequate drainage of the aqueous humor
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Certain people have an inability to speak due to brain damage. The most likely area of the brain that has been damaged is
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Broca’s area
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if a lung is punctured in a car accident, that lobe fails to inflate even though there is no obstruction of the air passageway to that lobe. Why?
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When the chest volume expands, air can now rush in through the puncture without filling the alveoli.
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Carbonic anhydrase
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speeds up the conversion of carbonic acid to carbon dioxide and water
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Which part of the respiratory system is composed of C-shaped cartilaginous rings and cilia?
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trachea
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After the trachea, what is the next structure the air passes through?
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bronchi
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By what route does CO2 leave the body?
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pulmonary artery → alveolus → bronchiole → bronchus → trachea → larynx → pharynx
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Blood richest in oxygen is found in the
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pulmonary veins
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The largest biome on earth is the
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ocean
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What happens to the amount of energy while going up the food pyramid?
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The amount of energy decreases
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The largest communities on land are called
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biomes
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The maximum population that the environment can support for an indefinite period of time is called the
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carrying capacity
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Which kind of organism would be most likely to perform photosynthesis?
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autotroph
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Humans are biologically adapted to be
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omnivores
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The human growth curve is best described as being
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J-shaped
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Which sequence represents the correct order of increasing complexity in living systems?
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molecule, cell, tissue, organ
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Classification of organisms reflects
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similarities, evolutionary history
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A population is defined as
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all of the individuals of a particular species in a given area
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The ultimate source of energy in any ecosystem is (are)
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the sun
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Which are the most biologically diverse ecosystems
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rain forests and coral reefs
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What is the unifying theory in biology that explains the relationships of all living things?
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evolution
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Which sequence exhibits an increasingly more-inclusive scheme of classification
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genus, family, order, class
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The best explanation as to why “big, fierce carnivores (animals that eat other animals) are rare” would be the fact that
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energy flows and dissipates
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Features that make an organism suited to its way of life are called
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adaptations
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What’s the difference between a test group and a control group?
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The test group is exposed to the factor being tested, but the control group is not exposed
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“Which of these ions is important for acid-base balance?
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“H+”
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“Which of these offers the most accurate information concerning”
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” space-filling model”
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An example of a hydrogen bond would b
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the bond between two water molecules.
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Covalent bonding between R groups in proteins is associated with the ____________________ structure.
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secondary and tertiary
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The polysaccharide found in plant cell walls is
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cellulose
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Ionic bonding involves
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All of these are correct.
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Phosphates can be found in
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DNA
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Which of these cannot be considered an organic molecule
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table salt
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An example of a dehydration reaction would be
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building lipids from fatty acids
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Nucleotides
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contain sugar, a nitrogen-containing base, and a phosphate molecule.
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The bond joining two adjacent amino acids is called
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a peptide bond
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Which of the following pertains to an RNA nucleotide and not to a DNA nucleotide?
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contains the sugar ribos
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Which of the following is not one of the elements commonly found in living organisms
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calcium
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Proteins are produce
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in the cytoplasm or the ER.
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Which structure is characteristic of prokaryotic cells
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nucleoi
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Ribosomes are found in what type of cells?
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animal,bacteria,plant
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Lysosomes function in
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intracellular digestion
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The cell theory states
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The cell is the basic unit of life
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The small size of cells is best correlated wit
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an adequate surface area for exchange of materials
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Energy is used for
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active transport
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Carrier proteins are _____ in their action
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specific
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An isotonic solution has the/a _____ concentration of water as the cell and the/a _____ concentration of solute as the cell.
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same, same
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The mosaic part of the fluid-mosaic model of membrane structure refers to
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the proteins
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The carbohydrate chains on lipids and proteins are found
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on the outside of the membrane
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Integrin and elastin are ______ associated with the _______ of a animal cell.
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proteins, ECM
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A coated pit is associated wit
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receptor-mediated endocytosis.
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Exocytosis involves
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fusion with the plasma membrane
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When a cell is placed in a hypotonic solution
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cholesterol
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________ form communication channels between animal cells.
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Gap junctions
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Which of the following is not found in the extracellular matrix of an animal cell?
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cellulose
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DNA synthesis occurs durin
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interphase.
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Where is the checkpoint for DNA damage
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G1
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Programmed cell death is called
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apoptosis.
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If a parental cell has 14 chromosomes prior to mitosis, how many chromosomes will the daughter cells have?
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apoptosis.
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. Crossing-over occurs
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between chromatids of homologous chromosome
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The fact that energy transformation is never 100% efficient is stated in the _____ law of thermodynamic
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second
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Which has more potential energy: glucose or CO2 and H2O
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glucose
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____ is the loss of electrons, and ____ is the gain of electrons.
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Oxidation, reduction
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Entropy is a term used to indicate the level
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disorganization.
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Which phase of cellular respiration occurs in the cytoplasm
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. glycolysis
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Mitochondria produce ATP by
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chemiosmosis
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. The metabolic process that produces the most ATP molecules is
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. The metabolic process that produces the most ATP molecules is
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_____ forms the outer protective covering of a plant
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Epidermal tissue
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Which of these cells in a plant is apt to be nonliving?
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sclerenchyma
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. The process of converting the information contained in the nucleotide sequence of RNA into a sequence of amino acids is called
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Ttranslation.
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How is transcription directly controlled in eukaryotic cells?
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using transcription factors and activator