Biology DNA protein synthesis study guide.

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What is the composition of dna
answer

Nucleotides
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What does DNA store?
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Genetic information
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Can DNA miss a part or section and if so what happens to the genetic information?
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Yes, the information is gone.
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Does DNA ever leave the nucleus? How does the information on DNA leave the nucleus?
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No, DNA NEVER leaves the nucleus. Information leaves through mRNA (messenger rna)
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What are the four bases and how do they pair up?
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Adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine. a=t g=c
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What type of bonds hold DNA together in he middle?
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Hydrogen bonds
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What is DNA replication
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2 identical strands of DNA are produced from original strand.
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Where does DNA replication take place?
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Nucleus ( DNA NEVER LEAVES NUCLEUS)
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What is the role of DNA polymerase in DNA replication?
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Ad a polymerase combines nucleotides to produce a new strand of DNA
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In what directions do each DNA polymerase travel?
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Opposite directions
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When replication is complete what is the final product
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Two identical strands of DNA
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How are two new strands of DNA different from the original?
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One half is original one half is the new strand
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What is the correct order for the parts of a nucleotide going from outside to inside?
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Phosphate, sugar, base
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Why won’t the structure guanine allow it to combine with thymine or adenine?
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The structure of guanine doesn’t allows hydrogen bonds to form.
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Explain what Rosalind franklin contributed to understanding the structure of DNA
answer

X-ray diffraction to see the structure
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What were James Watson and James cricks contribution to understanding the structure of DNA?
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They were first to build a 3-D model and then identify the shape being called the double helix.
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What is an enzyme? What suffix do ALL enzymes end with? What is the enzyme in DNA replication and what is the enzyme in transcription?
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Proteins. ASE. DNA polymerase. RNA polymerase.
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Where is DNA located in prokaryotes? Where is DNA located in eukaryotes? Cytoplasm, nucleus. Prokaryotes have NO nucleus.
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question

How are the sugars in DNA and RNA different?
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Deoxyribose(DNA), ribose (RNA)
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Have many strands does mRNA have?
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1
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What base is replaced in mRNA and tRNA and what is it replaced with?
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(U) Uricell. (T)hymine is replaced with (U)ricell.
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How would you know that two strands are copies of the original?
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The bases are the same. One is the same as the original and one is a copy of the new strand.
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What is the function of the three types of RNA?
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tRNA-transfers Amino acids mRNA-message on how to make protein. rRNA- (ribosomes) reads the message to make proteins.
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How woud you know if a strand is RNA?
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(U)ricell instead of (T)hymine. Only has ONE side.
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DNA polymerase makes what?
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DNA
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mRNA is made in what part of the cell?
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Nucleus
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What enzyme is responsible for making mRNA
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RNA polymerase
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What are the two parts of protein synthesis?
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Transcription, and translation.
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Transcription occurs in what part of the cell?
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Nucleus
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Translation occurs in what part of the cell?
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Cytoplasm
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WhT are proteins made from?
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Amino acids (AA)
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What type of RNA brings amino acids to be assembled at the mRNA?
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tRNA
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What is a stop codon?
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Stops process
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What is a start codon?
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Starts process
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What is an promoter?
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A place on DNA that tells DNA to attach (enzyme)
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How many amino acids exist?
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20
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How many codons exist
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64
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When is protein being made?
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During translation.

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