Biology Chapter 53

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Population
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is a group of individuals of a single species living in the same general area
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Density
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number of individuals per unit area or volume
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Dispersion
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is the pattern of spacing among individuals within the boundaries of the population
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Mark-recapture method
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to estimate the size of wildlife populations
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Immigration
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the influx of new individuals from other areas
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Emigration
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the movement of individuals out of a population and into other locations
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Territoriality
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the defense of a bounded physical space against encroachment by other individuals
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Demography
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is the study of the vital statistics of populations and how they change over time
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Life tables
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age-specific summaries of the survival pattern of a population
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Cohort
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a group of individuals of the same age, from birth until all of the individuals are dead
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Survivorship curve
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a plot of the proportion or numbers in a cohort still alive at each age
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Reproductive table
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or fertility schedule, is an age-specific summary of the reproductive rates in a population
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Zero population growth
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(ZPG), occurs when the per capita birth and death rates are equal
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Exponential population growth
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also known as geometric population growth, population increase under ideal conditions
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Carrying capacity
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symbolized by K, as the maximum population size that a particular environment can sustain
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Logistic population growth
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the per capita rate of increase approaches zero as the carrying capacity is reached
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Life history
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the traits that affect an organism’s schedule of reproduction and survival
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Semelparity
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reproduction in which an organism produces all of its offspring in a single event, also known as a big-bang reproduction
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Iteroparity
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repeated reproduction
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K-selection
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selection for traits that are sensitive to population density and are favored at high densities is known as this, or density-dependent selection
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r-selection
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selection for traits that maximize reproductive success in uncrowded environments (low densities), density-independent selection
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Density independent
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a birth rate or death rate that does not change with population density is said to be this
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Density dependent
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a death rate that rises as population density rises is said to be this
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Population dynamics
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are influenced by many factors and in turn affect other species
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Metapopulation
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when a number of local populations are linked
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Demographic transition
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the movement from high birth and death rates toward low birth and death rates, which tends to accompany industrialization and improved living conditions
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Age structure
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the relative number of individuals of each age in the population
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Ecological footprint
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summarizes the aggregate land and water area required by each person, city, or nation to produce all the resources it consumes and to absorb all the waste it generates
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BE
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Population ecologists follow the fate of same-age cohorts to A. determine a population’s carrying capacity B. determine the birth rate and death rate of each group in a population C. determine if a population is regulated by density-dependent processes D. determine the factors that regulate the size of a population E. determine if a population’s growth is cyclic
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AE
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A population’s carrying capacity A. may change as environmental conditions change B. can be accurately calculated using the logistic growth model C. generally remains constant over time D. increases as the per capita growth rate (r) decreases E. can never be exceeded
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CE
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Scientific study of the population cycles of the snowshoe hare and its predator, the lynx, has revealed that A. they prey population is controlled by predators alone B. hares and lynx are so mutually dependent that each species cannot survive without the other C. multiple biotic and abiotic factors contribute to the cycling of the hare and lynx populations D. both hare and lynx populations are regulated mainly by abiotic factors E. the hare population is r-selected and the lynx population is K-selected
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DE
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Based on current growth rates, Earth’s human population in 2012 will be closest to A. 2 million B. 3 billion C. 4 billion D. 7 billion E. 10 billion
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EE
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A recent study of ecological footprints concluded that A. Earth’s carrying capacity for humans if about 10 billion B. Earth’s carrying capacity would increase if per capita meat consumption increased C. current demand by industrialized countries for resources is much smaller than the ecological footprint of those countries D. it is not possible for technological improvements to increase Earth’s carrying capacity for humans E. the ecological footprint of the United States is large because per capita resource use is high
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CE
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The observation that members of a population are uniformly distributed suggest that A. the size of the area occupied by the population is increasing B. resources are distributed unevenly C. the members of the population are competing for access to a resource D. the members of the population are neither attracted to nor repelled by one another E. the density of the population is low
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CE
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According to the logistic growth equation dN/dt=rmaxN (K-N)/K A. the number of individuals added per unit time is greatest when N is close to zero B. the per capita growth rate (r) increases as N approaches K C. population growth is zero when N=K D. the population grows exponentially when K is small E. the birth rate (b) approaches zero as N approaches K
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DE
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Which pair of terms most accurately describes life history traits for a stable population of wolves? A. Semelparous; r-selected B. Semelparous; K-selected C. Iteroparous; r-selected D. Iteroparous; K-selected E. Iteroparous; N-selected
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BE
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During exponential growth, a population always A. grows by thousands of individuals B. grows at its maximum per capita rate C. quickly reaches its carrying capacity D. cycles through time E. loses some individuals to emigration
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AE
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Which of the following statements about human population in industrialized countries is incorrect? A. Life history is r-selected B. Average family size is relatively small C. The population has undergone the demographic transition D. The survivorship curve is Type I E. Age distribution is relatively uniform

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