Test Answers on BIOLOGY CHAPTER 18

question

C
answer

People were trying to treat cancer as long ago as A. a million years ago. B. 5,000 years ago. C. 1600 B.C. D. 1900 A.D. E. since the discovery of the genetic code in the 1960s.
question

A
answer

A cancer’s spread is called A. metastasis. B. malignancy. C. carcinogenesis. D. microstasis. E. oncogenesis.
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B
answer

Cancer does not typically follow a Mendelian pattern of inheritance because it is usually caused by A. two gene variants, one dominant and one recessive, and no environmental input. B. specific combinations of alleles and an environmental factor. C. specific combinations of an environmental factor and one dominant gene variant. D. environmental insults and no genes at all. E. genes that cause death before birth.
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C
answer

In 1971, cancer was thought to be caused by A. too little exercise. B. too much chocolate and other sweets. C. radiation, viruses, and chemical exposures. D. oncogenes and tumor suppressor gene mutations. E. a bacterial infection.
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E
answer

All cancers reflect, at the most general level, a defect in A. DNA replication. B. the formation of mitochondria. C. cell membrane structure. D. the cell’s ability to extract energy from nutrients. E. the cell cycle.
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B
answer

In normal differentiated somatic cells, telomerase A. adds material to the ends of chromosomes with each cell division. B. is not expressed and telomere tips erode with each division. C. removes telomere tips with each division. D. is overexpressed and cells undergo apoptosis. E. repairs double strand breaks in DNA.
question

A
answer

Sporadic cancers result from A. recessive or dominant mutation in a somatic cell. B. recessive or dominant germline mutation. C. mutation in a sperm or oocyte. D. exposure to a cancer-causing virus. E. lack of a cell cycle in affected cells.
question

A
answer

Dana Reeve, the wife of actor Christopher Reeve, died at a young age from lung cancer, although she had never smoked. Her cancer was likely caused by A. a germline mutation. B. two somatic mutations in the same lung cell. C. exposure to carcinogens. D. second hand smoke. E. stress from caring for her husband, who had a spinal cord injury.
question

C
answer

Cancer cells A. divide uncontrollably and then die. B. are particularly sensitive to extracellular signals. C. divide uncontrollably and are immortal. D. are impossible to grow in culture. E. have an extra set of chromosomes, which keeps them dividing.
question

A
answer

Cancer cells are not A. contact inhibited. B. transplantable. C. invasive. D. de-differentiated. E. immortal.
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B
answer

A cancer cell is injected into a healthy mouse. The mouse develops tumors. This experiment indicates that cancer is A. contact inhibited. B. transplantable. C. benign. D. invasive. E. malignant.
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D
answer

The term used to describe the fact that cancer cells have lost the specializations of the cells from which they descend is A. heritable. B. angiogenic. C. oncogenic. D. dedifferentiated. E. apoptotic.
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B
answer

Growth of new blood vessels in and around tumors is called A. invasiveness. B. angiogenesis. C. metastasis. D. dedifferentiation. E. apoptosis.
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C
answer

After mutations begin a cancer, other factors that influence whether the disease proceeds include A. how old the person is and whether he or she smokes. B. whether the person has had cancer before, and where in the body it was. C. location of the cancerous cell in the tissue, and how specialized the cell is. D. whether or not relatives have cancer. E. the type of exercise that the person does and whether the diet includes enough fruits and vegetables.
question

A
answer

A cancer stem cell can divide to give rise to A. tumor cells, abnormal daughter cells, normal cells, and more cancer stem cells. B. more cancer stem cells only. C. healthy stem cells and normally differentiated cells. D. nothing. It cannot divide further. E. invasive cells and metastatic malignant cells.
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B
answer

The connection between stem cells and cancer is that A. all stem cells are also cancer cells. B. cells may become cancerous by expressing “stemness” genes. C. stem cells rescue cells that have become cancerous. D. stem cells become cancerous if a person smokes. E. both stem cells and cancer cells have inactivated telomerase.
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B
answer

A proto-oncogene can become an oncogene when A. it is shut off. B. it is translocated next to a highly expressed gene. C. it is translocated next to a gene that is not being expressed. D. checkpoints are added to the cell cycle. E. the cell cycle temporarily runs backwards.
question

C
answer

A(n) _______ is a type of cancer-causing gene that promotes cancer by activating cell division at an inappropriate time or place. A. DNA repair gene B. tumor suppressor gene C. oncogene D. proto-oncogene E. teratoma
question

A
answer

The oncogene that causes Burkitt’s lymphoma results from A. A translocation that moves a proto-oncogene next to an antibody gene. B. an inversion that places a proto-oncogene next to a transcription factor gene. C. a point mutation in a proto-oncogene. D. a virus that inserts next to a proto-oncogene. E. a deletion of an anti-oncogene.
question

D
answer

Chronic myeloid leukemia is caused by a translocation that creates A. a proto-oncogene. B. a fusion protein that acts like a transcription factor, activating cell cycle control genes. C. a protein that increases growth factor production. D. a fusion protein that deregulates the cell cycle of myeloid white blood cells. E. a deletion of a whole chromosome.
question

A
answer

Genes that normally prevent cell division are A. tumor suppressors. B. transcription factors. C. proto-oncogenes. D. growth factors. E. oncogenes.
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D
answer

Loss of tumor suppression in a cell usually results from A. cytokine activation of a tumor suppressor gene. B. a translocation of a tumor suppressor gene. C. an inversion involving a tumor suppressor gene. D. a deletion of a tumor suppressor gene. E. activation of a proto-oncogene by a virus.
question

C
answer

Matthew has the inherited form of the eye cancer retinoblastoma. His disease is caused by A. a germinal mutation in one RB allele, and no mutation in the other allele. B. a somatic mutation in each copy of the RB gene in the same cell. C. a germinal mutation in one RB allele, then a somatic mutation in the other allele. D. a somatic mutation in the one of the RB genes in the same area of the retina of one eye. E. activation of the X-linked oncogene RB.
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B
answer

Tanisha was just diagnosed with an aggressive form of breast cancer called Her-2/neu. The cancer started because A. she has a deletion in the BRCA1 gene that is found in African-American and Ashkenazi Jewish women. B. her affected breast cells have many extra receptors for epidermal growth factor, and so they receive too many signals to divide. C. her affected cells have extra genes for epidermal growth factor, sending signals for the cells to divide too frequently. D. a translocation occurred between chromosomes 7 and 8, generating and activating a breast-specific oncogene. E. fusion proteins dot the surfaces of her affected breast cells, which attract carcinogens.
question

C
answer

In Wilms’ tumor, A. heart cells divide as frequently as do cells in the skin. B. being exposed to cigarette smoke in the uterus causes lung cancer in the infant. C. cells in a child’s kidney divide as frequently as if they were still in a fetus. D. deletion of the retinoblastoma gene causes an eye tumor. E. cancer develops in the breast when cells have too many growth factor receptors.
question

D
answer

The cause of p53-related cancers is A. fetal cells that remain in a child or adult, dividing too frequently. B. continual expression of the telomerase gene, which keeps cells dividing. C. deletion of cell cycle checkpoint genes. D. failure to repair damaged DNA, allowing the cell to continue dividing. E. a translocation between chromosomes 12 and 15.
question

C
answer

A. broken single DNA strands B. increased likelihood of a translocation C. interference with repair of a double-strand DNA breaks D. attracting radiation from the environment to the DNA, where it causes breaks E. undergoing mutations that form ring chromosomes
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B
answer

BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations A. are X-linked. B. are incompletely penetrant. C. are translocations. D. cause several types of leukemia. E. are in oncogenes.
question

D
answer

A way that a microRNA can cause cancer is to A. insert into an oncogene. B. insert into a tumor suppressor gene. C. cause a translocation. D. block translation of tumor suppressor gene transcripts. E. duplicate the genome.
question

B
answer

Mutations in microRNAs can explain families who have different cancers but do not have mutation for known family cancer syndrome genes because A. microRNAs are specific to families. B. a single type of microRNA can have many targets. C. microRNAs also serve as oncogenes. D. exposure to different environmental toxins triggers transcription of particular microRNAs. E. they caused reversion of the family cancer syndrome mutations.
question

E
answer

A gatekeeper gene A. regulates mitosis and meiosis. B. regulates its own mutation rate. C. can destabilize the genome when mutant. D. releases microRNAs that trigger parts of the cell membrane to open. E. regulates apoptosis and mitosis.
question

TRUE
answer

In addition to activated oncogenes and inactivated tumor suppressor genes, epigenetic changes in gene expression are seen in cancer.
question

TRUE
answer

Mitosis in a cancer cell can be compared to a runaway train that is racing along without signals and control points.
question

TRUE
answer

Pancreatic cancer typically begins 10 to 15 years before it causes abdominal pain and by the time diagnosis usually occurs, it has usually to the point where it is lethal within two years.
question

TRUE
answer

Invasive malignant tumors typically contain mutations that affect the cytoskeleton and allow the cell to move from where it is anchored.
question

TRUE
answer

Research has shown that a “cocktail” of several drugs, each acting on a different cellular pathway, is the best approach to treat many cancers.
question

A
answer

When tumor cell DNA is examined from people at different stages of the same cancer type, mutations that are common to all of them A. act early in the disease. B. act late in the disease. C. acted on an initial cell and then reverted to wild type. D. entered the cells on the same type of virus. E. are there by coincidence and do not mean anything about the disease.
question

A
answer

The first mutation typically detected in FAP colon cancer is A. APC. B. TGF. C. P53. D. PRL-3. E. RB.
question

D
answer

Types of genetic information in a cancer “atlas” include A. the types of foods a person eats and how he or she exercises. B. lists of where people have lived and what environmental toxins they have been exposed to. C. the numbers of each type of nitrogenous base in the genome. D. mutations, gene expression, SNPs, microRNAs, and copy number variants. E. the number of macroRNAs that are activated in a particular tumor type.
question

B
answer

Which type of study would compare the incidence of colon cancer among Japanese and Americans of Japanese descent? A. clinical B. population C. prospective D. case-control E. gene expression profile
question

B
answer

Which of these are thought to have anti-cancer benefits? A. heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAs) B. cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli C. red meats D. baked potatoes E. fried foods
question

E
answer

The diets of 250 patients with pancreatic cancer are compared to the diets of 250 healthy individuals, over a four month period. The patients and controls are matched one for one for age, sex, and body mass index. The cancer patients tended to eat more barbecued meat, and none of them were vegetarians. The healthy group included 30 vegetarians and only four of the 250 regularly ate barbecued meat. The researchers conclude that it would be worthwhile to further test the hypothesis that compounds in charred meat cause pancreatic cancer. What type of study is this? A. retrospective B. nutritionally controlled C. population D. multigenerational E. case-control
question

B
answer

Traditional cancer treatments include A. prayer and rationalization. B. surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. C. nutritional therapy and physical therapy. D. monoclonal antibodies and cytokines. E. gene therapy.
question

D
answer

A more recently developed cancer treatment is A. releasing control over apoptosis. B. stimulating telomerase activity. C. stimulating cells to return to a stem-like state of specialization. D. inhibiting angiogenesis. E. replacing the nuclei in cancer cells.
question

A
answer

A breast cancer test for HER2 considers A. genotype. B. phenotype. C. gene expression. D. mutation rate. E. receptor diversity.

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