BIOLOGY chapter 1 practice test

Which of the following is an attribute of living things?
They must be able to evolve and adapt

Which of the following is NOT an attribute of living things?
All living things require oxygen

What is the appropriate term for an interacting group of individuals of a single type occupying a define area?
Population

Emergent properties of living systems are defined as properties that
Are due to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases

Sequencing a protein to discover the sequence of amino acids that make it up is an example of _________. Understanding how that protein works with other proteins in a cell is an example of __________.
Reductionism
Systems Biology

In an ecosystem, nutrients _______ and energy ______.
cycle
flows through

The energy used by most organisms for metabolism and growth ultimately comes from _____.
the sun

Which of the following is the fundamental unit of structure and function in living organisms?
Cell

What is the molecule that can account for both the unity and diversity of life?
DNA

How is the information encoded in DNA actually used by organisms?
The information in DNA is transcribed to RNA and then translated into protein.

Which of the following domains is prokaryotic?
Archaea

Which kingdom within the domain Eukarya is composed of organisms that are generally unicellular?
Protista

Eukaryotic organism that decompose dead organisms and absorb the nutrients are generally found in which kingdom?
Fungi

Natural selection tends to act at which of the following levels?
Population

Which of the following observations and inferences led Charles Darwin to his theory of natural selection as a mechanism for evolution?
Darwin synthesized his theory of natural selection from all of the above observations and inferences.

With evolution as the core theme of biology, we can explain traits shared by organisms as evidence of _____ and traits that differ among organisms as evidence of ___.
Descent from a common ancestor

Adaptation through natural selection

Experimentation is only one part of the process of scientific inquiry, but it is very important step because it _____
allows rejection of a hypotheses

Radon is a radioactive gas that seeps into homes from the soil. It is thought to be a cause of lung cancer. A research team investigates this theory. They gather large amounts of data on basement radon concentrations and lung cancer rates and conclude that the more radon there is in a home, the more likely are people living in those homes to develop lung cancer. After the study is published, other researchers criticize it by asserting that the studied neighborhoods with higher radon concentrations also have a higher percentage of older people and a higher percentage of cigarette smokers than the low-radon neighborhoods. Both advanced age and cigarette smoking increase the risk of lung cancer. This criticism, if correct, shows that the radon study suffered from _____. ()
Uncontrolled variables

Which of the following statements is most clearly inductively derived? ()
If the animals observed required organic molecules as nutrients, then it can be concluded that all animals require organic molecules as nutrients.

Two garden plots were planted with corn. The soil was similar in each, and equal amounts of water were applied to each plot. One plot was fertilized, and the other was not. The experimenters measured the yield as bushels of corn from each plot. The plot that did not receive the fertilizer was the _____. ()
Control plot

At which point is a scientific investigator most likely to use deductive reasoning?
in establishing a test of hypothesis.

Which of the following is outside the realm of scientific inquiry
addressing ethical dilemmas

A company was testing a new drug it thought would help decrease the risk of transmission of viruses from mother to fetus. In an experiment to test the compound, an investigator gave 400 pregnant female rats a small dose of the experimental drug and inoculated each with a type of virus known to cause disease in rats. At the same time, 400 other pregnant rats were given only the virus. Of the rat pups born to the females that received both the virus and the drug, 203 showed no symptoms of the disease; 205 rat pups born to the virus-only females showed symptoms. From these data, we can best conclude _____. ()
That the drug seems to have little effect on the viral transmission at the dosage given.

The best method for determining whether bean plants require sodium is to _____.
grow bean plants with and without sodium

In experimental procedures, repetition of the procedures _____.
is necessary before concluding that a given set of results is correct.

Should an experiment test only one variable at a time? Why or why not? ()
Yes, an experiment should only test one variable at a time. This ensures that the experimental outcome is clearly due to one identifiable factor.

A theory is _____.
A well-supported concept that has broad explanatory power.