Biology Biochemistry Unit Review

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Name the four main Macromolecules
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Carbohydrates, Lipids, Nucleic Acid, and Protein
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Give the monomer, function, and example of the Carbohydrate Macromolecule.
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Monosaccharides, Quick Energy, Sugar or Starch
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Give the monomer, function, and example of the Lipid Macromolecule.
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Triglycerides, Storing Energy and Insulation, Oils or Fats
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Give the monomer, function, and example of the Nucleic Acid Macromolecule.
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Nucleotides, Carrying Genetic Information, DNA or RNA
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Give the monomer, function, and example of the Protein Macromolecule.
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Amino Acids, Building Structures or Carrying out Chemical Reactions as Catalysts, Muscle or Enzymes
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What is an enzyme, how does it work?
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Its a specialized protein (enzyme) that has a specific shape in order to fit in a substrate. Then chemical reactions will occur.
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Give an example of a simple sugar. What are they classified under?
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Glucose, Monosaccharides (remember that Monosaccharides are the monomer of the Carb. Macromolecule, who’s function is to provide energy through sugar or starch).
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What is matter made out of?
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Simply, atoms. Remember that matter is anything with volume and mass.
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Why is oxygen essential for removing low energy electrons and hydrogen ions (what makes it do this)?
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Because it only has six valence electrons, it makes it especially avaricious towards making Ionic bonds with other elements.
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What is the difference between hydrophilic and hydrophobic molecules? How does this affect cell membranes?
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Hydrophobic – Water Fearing. Hydrophilic – Water Loving. The heads of the phospholipids are water loving, while the tails are water fearing. This allows the cell membrane to retain itself, by not dissolving, in its watery environment, as both sides of the membrane are watery. This also allows passage of polar substances to enter the cell.
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Name five unique properties of water due to its polarity and hydrogen bonds.
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Adhesion and Cohesion, Universal Solvent, High Heat Capacity, High Surface Tension, and the Solid form is Less Dense and floats (AUHTD (Adhesion, Universal, Heat, Tension, Density)).
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Describe the structure of a nucleotide.
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It has a sugar molecule, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen base.
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Name the four most common elements in living organisms.
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CHON (Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen)
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How do monomers build macromolecules?
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By linking together in unique ways (Bonding).
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Describe the figure of an enzyme.
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Note: Sometimes enzymes have coenzymes, usually right beside them, so that their substrate may be able to fit better.
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Name two monosaccharides and two polysaccharides.
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Glucose, Fructose; Cellulose, Glycogen
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What is the suffix that indicates that a molecule is a sugar? An enzyme?
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-ose for sugar; -ase for enzymes
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The atomic number of an element is the same as the number of ______________.
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Protons.
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What is the maximum number of electrons in the second energy level (or second period) of an atom?
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Simply, eight.
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Where are electrons found in the atomic model?
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Moving around the outside of the nucleus.
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Which subatomic particles are found in the nucleus of an atom?
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Protons and Neutrons
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What can make an atom electrically neutral?
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When the number of protons (+) equals the number of electrons (-).
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What is the charge of a proton, neutron, and electron?
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proton – positive, neutron – neutral, electron – negative
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Describe the location of the metals, non-metals, and metalloids on the periodic table.
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Metals are to the left of the stairs, metalloids are sitting on top of the stairs, and non-metals are to the right of the stairs including hydrogen, which is by itself to the left.
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Where are groups/families and periods found on the periodic table?
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Groups are vertical columns. Periods are horizontal rows.
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For group A elements (1A, 2A, 3A, &c…) how can you determine the number of valence electrons?
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The group number (the number attached to the A) is the number of valence electrons of that group.
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What are valence electrons?
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The electrons in the outermost shell involved in reactions (bonds).
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What is the octet rule?
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Atoms with eight valence electrons are stable. If not, then they will strive to lose or gain those eight valence electrons (will never happen to group 8A).

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