Biology B

Adaptations result from interactions between organisms and their ______.
environment

Natural selection is based on Darwin’s observation that individuals most likely to survive and reproduce are those ________.
with traits best suited to their current environment

The history of life on Earth is recorded in _______.
rock fossils

Which is an example of an acquired trait?
the ability to write

What is a fossil?
the remains of an ancient organism

The modern synthesis theory states that evolution occurs through changes in the gene pool of _______.
populations

Darwin’s theory of common descent states that all organisms _______.
evolved from past organisms

According to the theory of _______, today’s organisms evolved from past organisms.
common descent

Which is an example of a population?
all the sugar maple trees in a state park

Reproductive separation may result in the _______ of two different species.
evolution

Which two ideas did Darwin use to explain evolution?
natural selection and common descent

When did Lamarck publish his ideas on evolution?
early 1800s

Over many generations, darker fur color becomes more common in a population of squirrels living in a shady area. This is an example of _______.
adaptation

What is biological evolution?
changes in the gene pool of a population over time

Which idea did Lamarck propose that was rejected by his fellow scientists?
acquired traits can be passed to offspring

In 2003, what was achieved by the Human Genome Project?
The entire sequence of human DNA was identified

How did the separation of Earth’s continents affect biological evolution?
populations adapted to the new conditions of each region

What type of information is recorded in a trace fossil?
evidence of an organisms activities

What do paleontologists use to determine the actual age of rocks?
radioactive dating

Which field of biology studies the structures of different species of animals?
comparative anatomy

Fossils on one continent may be similar to fossils on another continent. This observation supports which theory?
continental drift

What is Earth’s crust?
the outermost layer on Earth’s surface

________ provide evidence of common ancestry among organisms.
similarities in DNA sequences

Which type of rock may contain fossils?
sedimentary

From earliest to most recent, what is the correct order in which organisms appear in the fossil record?
invertebrates, amphibians, dinosaurs, and mammals

What is genetic drift?
random changes in the gene pool of a small population

Which term describes the movement of alleles into and out of a population?
gene flow

The Hardy-Weinberg principle states that ________ in a population do not change unless outside factors affect the gene pool.
allele frequencies

Which process adds new genes to a gene pool?
gene flow

When no living members of a species exist, the species _______.
has gone extinct

What is recombination?
new groupings of alleles in offspring

What is one reason that cheetahs are endangered?
habitat loss

Which population is subject to genetic drift?
a small population

The Hardy-Weinberg principle is written as the equation p^2+2pq+q^2 =1. What does the p represent?
the frequency of the dominant allele

Mutations are important for evolution because they _________.
are the source of new genetic variation

One consequence of genetic drift is _________.
loss of genetic variation

What can cause changes in DNA sequences?
mutations

Floods, droughts, fires, and earthquakes are examples of ________.
natural disasters

Recombination occurs during ________.
meiosis

Which scenario causes gene flow?
an animal moves to a new population and mates

Which factor does not take a population out of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?
allele frequency

What is the effect of differential reproduction over time?
changes in a population’s gene pool

People can breed cats for specific traits such as coat color through _______?
artificial selection

A scientist uses artificial selection to produce a new type of cow. Compared to their parent, the new cows are _______?
the same species with different genetic makeup

What is required for a person to have sickle cell disease?
the person is homozygous for the trait

Which is not one of Darwin’s four main ideas of natural selection?
evolution always improves organisms

Which statement about natural selection is true?
environmental changes determine which animals survive

Darwin noticed that birds that were good at finding scarce food in the winter had a better chance of surviving and producing offspring. What did he call this struggle for existence?
natural selection

What must be done for dogs to receive a particular trait?
mate two dogs that have the desired trait

Some individuals produce more offspring than others. Which term describes this observation?
differential reproduction

How many African Americans are carrier of the sickle cell allele?
1 in 11

Which is not part of macroevolution?
genetic drift

Which process can be observed in the laboratory?
microevolution

The change of England’s Biston betularia moth populations from light colored to dark colored is an example of _______.
microevolution

What is macroevolution?
major changes in populations over a long time

What cause England’s Biston betularia moth populations to change over time from light colored to dark colored?
changes in allele frequencies

Which two factors work together to affect an organism’s phenotype?
genes and the environment

Which is part of microevolution?
genetic drift

What do scientists often use to study macroevolution?
the fossil record

Which evolutionary mechanism caused the increase in dark colored Biston betularia moths in England in the 1800s?
natural selection

Which phenotypic change is genetic?
the flower color in a population changes over time

Why are horses and donkeys considered different species even though they can interbreed?
because their offspring (mules) are infertile

What factor can cause two populations to become reproductively isolated?
geographical barrier

What is an organism’s niche?
it’s interactions with the living and nonliving parts of the environment

Which best describes the biological species concept?
species are populations that interbreed and produce fertile offspring

What type of speciation occurs when a plant population becomes reproductively isolated while living with its parent population?
sympatric

Which key morphological feature is used to classify organisms as mammals?
mammary glands

What must occur for the gene pool within a population to change?
natural selection or genetic drift

Which two fields of study provide the core information that is used to classify organisms?
morphology and biochemistry

Which is one cause of speciation?
populations become reproductively isolated

How does sympatric speciation differ from allopatric speciation?
sympatric speciation involves a behavioral barrier, while allopatric speciation involves a physical barrier

In the 1930s, how did Dobzhansky and Mayr explain the origin of species?
species originate through allopatric speciation

A species is divided through geographic isolation. Over several generations, they lose the ability to interbreed. How are these two populations classified?
as two separate species

How are Dobzhansky and Mayr’s ideas about the origin of species similar to Darwin’s?
they thought the evolution of new species is linked to environmental changes

After speciation occurs, what happens to the species’ gene pools?
they become more and more different over time

According to the theory of punctuated equilibrium, when does stasis occur?
when environmental conditions are stable

What is the most likely explanation for how speciation occurs?
it occurs by more than one method

Paleontologists have found that after a major extinction occurs,
many new species often appear around the same time

According to the theory of punctuated equilibrium, which event could lead to speciation?
a meteor strikes Earth

Which best describes how long it usually takes for speciation to occur?
several generations

What is the theory of punctuated equilibrium?
it describes one way that new species arise

How does mass extinction affect species that survive?
they fill new roles in the changed environment

The mass extinctions that occurred 250 million years ago and 65 million years may have been due to gradual processes or ________.
a large comet or asteroid striking Earth

What is the main cause of extinction on Earth today?
human impact on the environment

How does the rate of extinction compare to the rate of species formation on Earth today?
the rate of extinction is faster

What is instantaneous speciation?
the formation of a new species over a few generations

A particular plant species is pollinated by a certain insect species. The insect species depends on the plant species for food. Which term describes how the relationship forms?
co-adaptation

Which shows the correct order from smallest to largest?
species, population, community

How is a community different from a population?
a community is a group of many different species, while a population is made up of individuals of one particular species

What has occurred when large numbers of species die out over a short period of time?
mass extinction

Why are small populations more prone to genetic disease?
they have a greater frequency of harmful genes

Which taxonomic level for a given genus includes the greatest number of species?
phylum

What characteristic do all members of Eukarya have that members of Eubacteria do not have?
cells with nuclei

What is one way that members of Archaebacteria are different from members of Eubacteria?
they have different types of cell walls and cell membranes

What are the characteristics of Archaebacteria?
they are single cells that lack a nucleus and tend to live in extreme conditions

Which two groups are the most similar in physical characteristics?
archaea and eubacteria

Which belong in the domain Eukarya?
fungus

Which is a member of the domain Eubacteria?
E. coli

The science of classifying organisms based on features they share is called ________.
taxonomy

Which is the correct interpretation of the scientific name Homo sapiens?
Homo is the genus and sapiens is the species

Which characteristics do scientists use to group species?
ancestors and DNA

How many words are there in the scientific name for a species using the Linnaeus classification system?
2

Which eubacteria help plants in the production of protiens?
nitrogen-fixing bacteria

Freezing food ______ the action of bacteria.
slows

What term describes the whip-like structure that helps cells move through liquids?
flagellum

Which is a class of extremophile?
halophile

What characteristic is used to group the three kinds of Eubacteria?
shape

What is a chemosynthetic organism?
it uses sulfur or other elements as a source of energy

What are streptococci?
chains of spherical bacteria

Which would likely live near a crack in the deep ocean floor that spews scalding water?
thermoacidophile

Which would likely live in a bog, a sewage treatment plant, or a cow’s intestine?
methanophile

Which would likely live in the Great Salt Lake?
halophile

Which kind of organism does not generally require oxygen or sunlight to live?
archaebacteria

What is true of flagellates?
they can move through water

What is true of paramecia?
they are ciliates

What happens to a euglena when sunlight is not present?
it absorbs food from the environment

When would slime molds be likely to gather one form one, large structure?
when food and water are scarce

What kind of organism gets food using cilia?
paramecium

How are protozoa similar to animals?
they can get food and move

Which type of algae is called seaweed and belongs to the division Phaeophyta
brown algae

What is true of cilia?
they are like hairs

What characteristic do all protists have in common?
cell nuclei that contain DNA

What kind of protist causes dysentery?
amoeba

Where are slime molds often found?
in damp soil or rotting material

What is a spore?
a reproductive cell produced by slime molds

Where are most algae found?
in freshwater and salt water

What food product is made using a fungus?
cheese

What do fungi have in common with plants?
their cells have nuclei that contain DNA

What kind of organism caused the Great Potato Famine in Ireland in the 1800s?
a fungus

What are hyphae made of?
membranes and cytoplasm

Which part of a mushroom can you see above the ground?
reproductive structure

Which statement correctly describes the function of each lichen part?
algae provide food, bacteria provide nitrogen, and fungi provide structure

What do fungi give off after they digest the food that they absorb?
carbon and nitrogen

How do hyphae spread from one area to another?
they grow quickly underground

What do fungi have in common with animals?
they are heterotrophs

How is penicillin used?
to kill bacteria that cause disease

Two different species belong to the same class. What other levels of classification do they have in common?
kingdom and phylum

What is the function of sori?
sori release haploid cells

Where are the spore containing sori of a fern found?
on the underside of a fern frond

What is the function of a moss’s rhizoid?
to obtain water

What vascular plant tissue is made of dead cells?
xylem

How are moss spores produced?
by sporophytes through meiosis

Where does xylem transport water?
from roots to leaves

Mycorrhiza form relationships between fungi and which part of vascular plants?
roots

How are moss gametes produced?
by gamophytes through mitosis

What is the meaning of the term germinate?
to start growth

Where does fertilization take place in conifers?
in the ovary of a female cone

Which part of a flower contains the ovary?
pistil

Many flowers produce nectar. What is a purpose of nectar?
to attract birds and insects

What is another name for a flowering plant?
angiosperm

Which statement about male and female cones is true?
male cones are smaller than female cones

How many months of a year do most conifers have green leaves?
12

Gymnosperms were the first plants to reproduce using ________.
seeds

Which part of a flower will develop into fruit?
ovary

What does a seed contain?
a plant embryo and stored food

Which describes most woody stems?
rough

What is one function of plant stems?
to transport water and food

Which structures are not found in simple leaves?
leaflets

In which part of a root is vascular tissue found?
the inner layer

A plant that responds to touch is showing which of the following?
thigmotropism

In gravotropism, in which direction to the roots grow?
downward

In which part of a leaf is food made?
blade

Which describes herbaceous stems?
soft

A plant that grows toward light shows which of the following?
phototropism

How mant growing seasons do plants with herbaceous stems usually survive?
one

What is one function of roots?
to take in minerals from the soil

Cnidarians such as jellyfish have radial symmetry. How are the body parts of cnidarians arranged?
like spokes on a wheel

How many cell layers are found in a blastula?
3

Which system controls the coordinated movement of animals?
nervous

How many copies of each chromosome are found in most animal cells?
2

Pinworms have small bodies, bilateral symmetry, and complete digestive tracts. What type of animal are they?
nematodes

Which is true of all animals?
they are heterotrophs

How many copies of each chromosome are found in animal sex cells?
1

Which is a feature of a flatworm?
thin bodies

What is the name for an organized group of cells that wokr together?
tissue

Organisms that must eat food for energy are ________.
heterotrophs

How many pairs of legs does an arachnid have?
4

What is found in all adult echinoderms?
radial symmetry

What is one common function of an arthropods antennae?
to smell

How does an echinoderm use its tube feet?
for attachment

Which is the largest group of arthropods?
insects

Which insect goes through complete metamorphosis?
butterfly

Where do echinoderms live?
in marine environments

Where do most crustaceans live?
in water

Which arthropods have many body segments, with two pairs of legs on each segment?
centipedes

Which is a feature of all arthropods?
segmented bodies

Chordate embryos develop a notochord along the dorsal side. This position is located at the ________ of the embryo.
back

Which of the following is a feature of humans?
opposable thumbs

Where do amphibian larvae live?
underwater

Most of the species in the class _______ lay amniotic eggs.
reptilia

Which animals are the oldest vertebrate fossils?
fish with no jaws

Which types of embryos have pharyngeal slits?
all chordates

The class mammalia contains the only animals that _______.
have mammary glands

Which body parts do birds have?
feathers, beaks, and scales

How does a bony fish use the swim bladder?
to move up and down in water

Which animal is an ectotherm?
turtle

What process causes behavior patterns to change over generations as a result of reproductive success?
change through natural selection

What is a scientist called who observes animals in orfer to explain their behavior?
ethologist

A peacock spreading its tail to attract a mate is sending an _________ stimilus?
external

What term describes anything that causes an organism to react?
stimulus

What term describes the way an organism responds to a stimulus?
behavior

Which of the following is an example of a learned behavior?
birds returning to a backyard bird feeder

Mammals generally care for their young. Most turtles abandon their young. What term describes both of these behaviors?
innate

Which is an external stimulus?
heat

The way a particular species of bird constructs its nest is an example of ___________?
a fixed action pattern behavior

Animals with which kind of behavior are most adaptable to change?
flexible

An animal that hides under a rock to avoid predators is responding to a(n) _________ stimulus.
external

A mouse runs for cover in the presence of a cat. The cat is an example of a(n) ________ stimulus.
external

Which is not a characteristic of imprinting?
the mother must be present

A female mammal nursing her offspring is an example of what type of behavior?
parental care

Which is not a combination of innate and learned behavior?
mimicry

Which best describes a prey animal?
one that is eaten by other animals

Which is a component of all innate behaviors?
genetics

Courtships belongs to what class of behaviors?
innate

Warning coloration is an example of what kind of behavior?
defensive

A bird that perfects the sound and notes of its species song as it ages shows what type of learning?
observational

What type of learning describes when animals learn by watching or listening others of their species?
observational

Which best describes a predator animal?
one that eats other animals

Animals with territorial behaviors show _________.
aggression

What term describes the behaviors between males and females of the same species for the purposes of mating?
courtship

Viceroy butterflies are not poisonous, but they look just like the poisonous monarch butterflies. Which behavior does the viceroy use to deter birds that would otherwise eat it?
mimicry

All wild birds of the same species sing the same song. How do the birds learn their species song?
by listening to it

When a male bird of paradise spreads its tail and does a dance to impress his potential mate, what signals is it using?
body display and movement

When an animal uses two kinds of signals together to obtain a response, there is a communication _________.
cycle

What term describes a chemical signal made in sweat glands?
pheromone

Which is a characteristic of agonistic interaction?
aggression

Animals raising their young in packs is an example of ________.
cooperation

A pheromone is a signal detected as a(n) _______.
odor

What is it called when an organism signals another that their interaction is not serious or threatening?
metacommunication

What behavior is shown by two bighorn sheep butting heads in a fight for a female?
agonistic interaction

Why is the alarm calling of the vervet monkey an example of advanced communication?
the response is learned and varies over time

What type of behavior is characterized by the display of body parts or release of a scent for the purpose of attracting a mate?
courtship

In his experiment, Nicko Tinbergen determined that a female wasp can find its nest by using _____.
landmarks

Which level of organization includes the most interactions?
biosphere

Which describes the ability of a community to resist change?
stability

Which is an example of commensalism?
barnacles benefit from living on whales, and they do not hurt the whales

Which term is a type of symbiosis?
mutualism

The organisms in a community are interdependent. What does this mean?
the organisms rely on each other for survival

A symbiotic relationship in which two different organisms benefit from living together is called ________.
mutualism

What is the largest level of organization for the environment?
biosphere

Fleas and dogs are in a symbiotic relationship called __________.
parasitism

What does population density measure?
the degree of crowding of a population

Barnacles live on whales. Whales carry the barnacles around, which helps the barnacles feed. The whales are unaffected. This is an example of ___________.
commensalism

When the number of organisms increases in an ecosystem, the _________.
number of resources is usually the same

Which is a density-independent factor?
drought

Which will probably decrease population density?
forest fire

When grass is randomly distributed throughout an environment, a population of deer that eats grass is most likely to have a ________ pattern.
random

A period in which the densities of populations increase or decrease at the same time is called a _______.
boom-bust cycle

Which tends to increase the size of a population?
immigration

Which increases as a population grows?
competition

Which will probably increase population density?
increase in the food supply

Which distribution pattern describes pine trees on a pine tree farm?
uniform

What distribution pattern describes wolves that live in packs?
clumped

Which plants are usually the first to grow during secondary succession?
weeds

Secondary succession could occur after a __________.
disturbance has destroyed populations in a community

Which is true of secondary succession?
it occurs in land and marine communities

Primary succession can occur after a ___________.
volcanic eruption produces a new island

Succession is the process of __________ in a community.
ecological change

Which plants are the first to grow during primary succession?
mosses

Where is primary succession likely to occur?
on a new rock created by a volcanic eruption

Ecological change in a community following a major disturbance is called _________.
succession

Which activity could trigger primary succession?
a volcanic eruption

Which is true of primary succession?
it starts on nonliving rock and land

A community that experiences major changes undergoes _________.
ecological change

Which are the first organisms to start the process of primary succession?
microorganisms

From where do chemotrophs get energy?
food

Mice eat corn. Hawks eat mice. Which term describes corn in this food chain?
producer

Which is an example of a phototroph?
a plant

Mice eat corn. Hawks eat mice. Which term describes hawks in this food chain?
secondary consumer

Mice eat corn. Hawks eat mice. What is the source of all the energy in this food chain?
the sun

Which term describes how a person gets energy?
chemotrophic

Which one is a chemotroph?
a box turtle

A phototroph is to a chemotroph as __________.
a plant is to an animal

Which is at the bottom of an energy pyramid?
photosynthetic producers

What is the direct source of energy for phototrophs?
sunlight

What role do decomposers play in the nitrogen cycle?
they return nitrogen to the soil

How do plants get nitrogen?
by absorbing it from soil

Which nutrient do organisms tend to get from their local ecosystem?
phosphorous

Nutrients move through ecosystems in different ways. Which nutrient cycles through organisms, rivers, rain, and the atmosphere?
water

Which process changes carbon dioxide into organic molecules?
photosynthesis

What is the name of the process of liquid water changing into water vapor due to heating?
evaporation

Which is an example of precipitation?
snow

What happens when solar energy heats a body of water?
evaporation

Which kind of nutrients cycle through the atmosphere?
those that can exist as gases

Which process returns water to Earth?
precipitation

Which factor controls the water cycle?
energy from the sun

Which process produces carbon dioxide?
cellular respiration

Most of the nitrogen in the atmosphere is found in what form?
as nitrogen gas

Which biome is commonly found near the equator?
tropical forest

Which type of forest contains several kinds of cone-bearing trees and typically receives a lot of snow in winter?
coniferous

Ecosystems that experience the same climate conditions are grouped together into larger regions called ________.
biomes

Which biome has no large trees because much of the soil is frozen?
tundra

What characteristic is used to divide aquatic biomes into three zones?
light exposure

Which is true of the regions near the Earth’s equator?
they receive more solar energy than the poles

What is another name for the average weather conditions in a region over a long period of time?
climate

Which type of forest contains many trees that shed their leaves during fall and winter?
deciduous

Which biome contains both freshwater and saltwater?
estuary

Which biome typically experiences hot summers, cold winters, and lots of rain?
temperate deciduous forest

Dog excrement is carried by rain into bodies of water, where it causes algae to grow rapidly and crowd out other organisms in the ecosystem. What is this process called?
eurotrophication

What may happen to a species whose limited habitat is destroyed by land developement?
it will become extinct

Ozone is a molecule in the upper atmosphere that is made up of three atoms of ___________.
oxygen

Introduced species often take over an ecosystem because they usually __________.
have no competitors

What type of unhealthful air pollution occurs when ozone near the ground mixes with otehr polluting gases?
smog

Approximately how many species become extinct on Earth each day?
100

What effect does human activity have on many ecosystems?
it destroys habitats

What process causes gases in the atmosphere to trap heat near the surface of Earth?
greenhouse effect

To help ecosystems thrive, humans must gain a better understanding of ________.
ecology and the environment

How many people are added to the world population each year?
70 million

Conservation biology uses ecological information to restore damaged _________.
ecosystems

What is not part of Earth’s biodiversity?
volcanoes

Which is an important source of carbon monoxide emissions that contributes to the greenhouse effect?
vehicles

What term describes a species that has far fewer members today than in the past?
threatened

What term is used to describe the reuse of aluminum in old soda cans to make new products?
recycling

If a native species has been labeled as endangered, what is the appropriate response?
gather data to design a recovery plan

What form of waste cannot be recycled to make new products?
food waste

How can humans reduce the number of landfills?
produce less trash

What is the main reason that governments create natural areas called reserves?
to protect weakened ecosystems and their wildlife

What is a landfill?
a place where trash is collected

Science helps people learn about the way the world works. What is the goal of technology?
to make things that solve problems

Scientific and technological discoveries are accepted if their evidence can be _________.
repeated

What is the purpose of a patent?
to protect ownership of a new technology

Models and computer simulations are sometimes used to test the ___________ of a new technology.
performance

What term is used for the study of nonliving parts of Earth?
geology

To reduce the chances of system failure, engineers may use _____________.
performance testing

Creating new things to solve problems and improve life depends on the close interaction of which two fields?
science and technology

What area of study applies scientific findings to create ways for solving problems or improving life?
engineering

Which is not a source of funding for scientific research?
scientific meetings

What might engineers use to test a new software design?
simulations

Products that are created to solve problems in new ways result from advances in __________.
technology

Where are the first reports of new scientific disciveries published?
scientific journals

What happens when the body releases perspiration?
water evaporates from the skin

The skin covering the human body consists of ____ layers.
3

Which system fights off disease?
immune

Which part of the skin keeps in heat?
fatty layer

Which part of the skin contains blood vessels, nerves, and glands?
dermis

Which system moves the body?
muscular

The __________ system includes the heart.
circulatory

The __________ system includes the esophagus.
digestive

The __________ system includes the brain.
nervous

Which system carries food and oxygen to cells?
circulatory

What structures work in antagonistic pairs to move bones?
skeletal muscles

How many bones does a human adult have?
206

How do muscles work in antagonistic pairs?
when one muscle pulls, the other muscle relaxes

What is the function of cartilage in adult bones?
preventing friction between bones

Which is the most common type of muscle in the body?
skeletal

Food moves through the digestive tract by peristalsis, which is produced by wavelike contractions of _________ muscles.
involuntary

What is the function of spongy material called red marrow?
it makes blood cells

Which skeletal structure encloses the reproductive organs?
the pelvis

Which type of muscle is found in the lining of the arteries?
smooth

Which structure is an example of a hinge joint?
knee

How many bones does an infant have at birth?
350

The walls of arteries include a ________ muscle layer.
smooth

Where in the body is cardiac muscle found?
the heart

What is not a function of the skeletal system?
making vitamins

Which organ is involved in ingestion?
mouth

What happens to food material that cannot be digested?
it is eliminated as feces

Food moves from the mouth to the stomach through which organ?
esophagus

Which organ stores and releases bile?
gallbladder

Which shows the correct order in which food moves during digestion?
stomach, small intestine, large intestine

The third stage of digestion is absorption, which begins when the food enters the _________.
small intestine

Which organ forms the largest section of the digestive tract?
small intestine

During digestion, excess glucose is stored in liver cells and muscle cells in what form?
glycogen

Food travels directly from the stomach to the _________.
small intestine

Which event occurs in the large intestine?
water is recovered

Which structure helps food move to the pharynx?
tongue

Which organ is at the end of the digestive tract?
anus

Where does the digestive process begin?
in the mouth

Inhalation begins when ________.
the diaphragm contracts

Which statement is not true of cilia in the respiratory tract?
they close the windpipe opening when swallowing

At the tip of each bronchiole is ________.
alveoli

Which disease causes mucus to build up in the lungs and clog the airways?
cystic fibrosis

Which structure prevents food and liquids from being inhaled when a person swallows?
the epiglottis

During inhalation, air moves directly from the larynx to the _________.
trachea

Which occurs during inhalation?
the rib cage expands

Where is the diaphragm located?
below the lungs

Which action removes carbon dioxide from the body?
exhaling

Which structures bring oxygen from the trachea to the lungs?
bronchi

Which event signals the brain to breathe?
increased blood levels of carbon dioxide

Which is the largest artery in the body?
aorta

What is the function of white blood cells?
they fight infections

Which condition causes fatty substances to build up in blood vessels?
atherosclerosis

What transports oxygen in the blood?
red blood cells

When the left ventricle contracts, blood flows to the ________.
aorta

What is the function of interstitial fluid?
it exchanges nutrients and wastes with blood

Fibrinogen is a protein produced in platelets that _______.
creates blood clots

When the ventricles contract, blood flows from the right ventricle to the ________.
lungs

A thrombus can clog an artery. What occurs when an artery in the brain is blocked?
stroke

Which structure(s) carry oxygen-rich blood away from the heart?
arteries

Which lobe in the cerebral cortex is responsible for short-term memory?
frontal

A thin membrane stretching across the ear canal is the __________.
eardrum

How many pairs of spinal nerves branch off from the spinal cord?
31

Which structure controls the amount of light that enters the eye?
pupil

Which type of sensory receptor responds to touch and pressure?
mechanoreceptor

What is the spinal cord?
a thick bundle of nerves

What does the limbic system do?
registers feelings, such as fear and pleasure

What is one function of the backbone?
it protects the spinal cord

Which structure starts at the brain and goes down the back?
the spinal cord

The brain communicates with the rest of the body through the __________.
spinal cord

What is one of the functions controlled by the cerebellum?
balance

Where is the spinal cord found?
in the backbone

Which type of stimulus do mechanoreceptors detect?
sound

Hormones secreted by the hypothalamus __________.
regulate the pituitary gland

What is a function of the hormones secreted by the pancreas?
they regulate blood levels of glucose

What is the term for the chemical messengers that the endocrine glands produce?
hormones

In the body, hormones move from one location to another through _________.
the blood

Which organ forms urine?
kidney

Through which structure does urine leave the body?
urethra

Low blood levels of which substance would cause the release of more ADH into the blood?
fluid

Which is a way for the body to conserve water during periods of heavy sweating?
it can filter less water out of the blood

Kidneys filter __________ from the blood and form urine.
nitrogen waste

Which glands produce hormones that increase metabolic activity and increase blood levels of glucose?
the adrenal glands

Which is one way that skin protects the body from infection?
skin keeps germs out of the body

Which cells produce antibodies?
B lymphocytes

Which is another term for a germ?
pathogen

How does fever help fight germs?
it stops bacteria from growing

Which activity is part of the inflammatory response?
compliment proteins signaling phagocytes

How do phagocytes protect the body?
they eat infected and foreign cells

Which statement is true of antibodies?
they are specific to antigens

Which is a description of fever?
increased body temperature

Which directly attacks host cells that contain bacteria or viruses?
T lymphocytes

Each lymphocyte had thousands of receptor proteins in its membranes. What is the job of these receptor proteins?
to recognize antigens

When does menstruation occur?
after an egg fails to fertilize

Testosterone is produced in which structure(s)?
testes

The diploid cells that begin spermatogenesis are called spermatogonia. Where are spermatogonia found?
in the seminiferous tubules

Which process occurs when an egg cell, blood, and pieces of uterine lining leave the body through the vagina?
menstruation

Semen and urine both exit the body through the _________.
urethra

What happens during ovulation?
a follicle releases an egg into a fallopian tube

Which structure connects the testes to the urethra?
vas deferens

Where does oogenesis take place?
in the ovaries

Where in the body do oocytes mature?
the follicles

Where does spermatogenesis take place?
testes