Biology 12 – Biochemistry

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Acid
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Substances which release H+ ions in solution
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Adenine
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Purine base found in DNA and RNA which pairs with thymine and uracil respectively
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Adipose
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Fat tissue
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ADP
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(Adenosine diphosphate) Nucleotide made of adenine, a ribose sugar and 2 phosphates which holds less energy than ATP
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Alpha Helix
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Spiralled secondary protein structure
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Amino Group
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Part of amino acids composed of NH2
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ATP
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(Adenosine triphosphate) Nucleotide made of adenine, a ribose sugar and 3 phosphates used to store energy
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ATP Cycle
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Dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis cycle where ADP joins with a phosphate, storing energy and ATP releases a phosphate releasing energy
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ATPase
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Enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP into ADP
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Bases
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Substances which release OH- ions in solution
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Buffer
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Neutralizes excess acid or base preventing significant fluctuations in pH
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Carbohydrates
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Energy nutrients made up of single or multiple sugar molecules
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Carbonic Anhydrase
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Enzyme which catalyzes the synthesis of carbonic acid (H2CO3) in plasma to remove CO2 from the body
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Carboxyl Group
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Part of amino acids and fatty acids composed of COOH
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Cell Respiration
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Process by which living things convert chemical energy in sugars into usable energy
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Cellulose
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Plant polysaccharide which makes up cell walls and is a linear sequence of glucose
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Cohesion
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Tendency for water molecules to stick to one another due to hydrogen bonds, allowing capillary action
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Covalent Bond
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Formed when electrons are shared between two or more atoms
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Cytosine
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Pyramidine base found in DNA and RNA which pairs with guanine
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Dehydration Synthesis
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Synthesis by which two larger molecules are formed by the removal of water from two smaller molecules
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Denatured
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Bonds holding a protein molecule together are disrupted by physical or chemical means, resulting in change of shape
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Deoxyribose
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Monosaccharide derived from ribose which has lost an oxygen atom and I’d found in DNA
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Dietary Fibre
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Mixture of cellulose and other plant polysaccharides such as pectin which swell when digested
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Diglyceride
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Neutral fat composed of glycerol and 2 fatty acids
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Dipeptide
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Protein composed of 2 amino acids
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Disaccharide
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Carbohydrate composed of two sugar molecules
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Dissociation
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The separation of a molecule or compound into smaller molecules, such as atoms or ions
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Double Helix
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Spiralled coil of two nucleic acids
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Empirical Formula
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Formula of a chemical with the smallest possible ratio of elements
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Emulsifier
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A stabilizer of a mixture of 2 liquids otherwise immiscible such as oils and water
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Ester Bond
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Found in neutral fats and polysaccharides
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Esterification
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Dehydration reaction which results in an ester bond
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Eukaryote
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Organism who’s cells contain a membrane-bound nucleus
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Fatty Acid
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Hydrocarbon chains of 16-18 carbon atoms with a carboxyl group (COOH) which can be saturated or unsaturated with hydrogen
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Glucose
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Common monosaccharide which makes up most polysaccharides
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Glycerol
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Part of neutral fats which binds to fatty acids with ester bonds
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Glycogen
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Animal polysaccharide used for energy storage and is highly branched
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Guanine
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Purine base found in DNA and RNA which pairs with cytosine
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Hydrogen Bond
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Formed between a hydrogen proton and the negative end (dipole) of another molecule
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Hydrolysis
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A water molecule breaks bonds between larger molecules
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Ionic Bond
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Formed when electrons are transferred between atoms
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Isomers
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Chemicals which have the same formula but different arrangements
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Lipids
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Non-polar compounds insoluble in water, generally composed of glycerol and fatty acids
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Lubricant
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A substance used to reduce friction
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Maltase
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Enzyme which converts maltose into glucose molecules
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Maltose
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Disaccharide composed of 2 glucose molecules
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Monoglyceride
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Neutral fat composed of glycerol and one fatty acid
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Monosaccharide
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Carbohydrate composed of one sugar molecule
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Negative Dipole
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Slight negative charge from a polar molecule from the nucleus
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Neutral Fat
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Lipid composed of glycerol and fatty acids
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Nucleic Acid
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Polymers composed of nucleotides used to carry energy and genetic information
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Nucleotides
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Functional units of nucleic acids composed of sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogen base
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Peptide Bond
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Bonds which join together amino acids in polypeptides
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pH
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Used to measure how acidic or basic a solution is
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Phospholipid
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Major component of cell membranes composed of a phosphate molecule attached to a glycerol backbone making it polar
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Phosphoric Acid (H3PO4)
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Molecule containing phosphorus used in nucleic acids
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Photosynthesis
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The process by which plants use chloroplasts to trap sunlight energy to synthesize carbohydrates
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Polar
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Molecules with positive and negative dipoles
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Polar Covalent
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A covalently bonded molecule which has dipole charges
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Polymer
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Molecules composed of three to millions of subunits which generally contain repeating subunits
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Polysaccharide
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Composed of many sugar subunits
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Positive Dipole
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Slight positive charge on one end of a molecule as a result of hydrogen nuclei
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Primary Structure
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Protein structure composed of a linear sequence of amino acids
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Protein
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Structural components of cells composed of amino acids joined by peptide bonds
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Purine
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Double ring nitrogen bases
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Pyrimidines
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Single ring nitrogen bases
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Quaternary Structure
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Protein structure composed of 2 or more different kinds of protein in a globular, 3D shape made of 4 molecules
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Ribose
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5 carbon sugar molecule found in DNA and RNA
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Saturated
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Fully bonded with all hydrogen possible
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Secondary Structure
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Helical coils or sheeted planes of proteins caused by hydrogen bonding between two proteins
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Simple Sugar
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Sugars which cannot be hydrolyzed into other sugars
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Soap
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A polymer of fatty acids in a triglyceride formation
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Starch
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Helical carbohydrate structure of glucose found in plants
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Steroid
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Chemical signals made from cholesterol
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Tertiary Structure
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Protein structure formed by covalent and ionic bonds from R group interaction between amino acids
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Thymine
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A pyrimidine nitrogen base which pairs with adenine, only in DNA molecules
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Triglyceride
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Neutral fat composed of three fatty acids ester-bonded to a glycerol molecule
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Tripeptide
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Protein composed of three amino acids peptide-bonded together
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Unit Molecule
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Molecule which forms a polymer
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Unsaturated
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Not containing maximum number of hydrogen, or contains double-bonded carbon
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LDL’s (Low Density Lipoproteins)
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“Bad” cholesterol which bind to receptor sites on cell membranes to be removed from blood but can form deposits.
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HDL’s (High Density Lipoproteins)
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“Good” cholesterol which carry LDL’s to the liver to be broken down
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Phospholipid
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Fats with phosphate molecule attached to glycerol backbone used frequently for cell membranes
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Uracil
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A pyrimidine nitrogen base which pairs with adenine, only in RNA molecules

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