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Bio Chapter 13 Final Essay

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1) The serous membrane covering the surface of the lungs is called the: 1) _______ A) pleurisy B) mediastinum C) visceral pleura D) parietal pleura E) main (primary) bronchi
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c
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2) The bluish cast that results from inadequate oxygenation of the skin and mucosa is called: 2) _______ A) albinism B) xanthosis C) melanosis D) cyanosis E) erythema
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d
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3) The lipid molecule critical to lung function that coats the gas-exposed alveolar surfaces is called: 3) _______ A) renin B) interferon C) lecithin D) kinin E) surfactant
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e
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4) Cilia of the trachea that beat continually propel contaminated mucus: 4) _______ A) toward the glottis to be hiccupped out B) toward the lungs to be encapsulated C) toward the nose to be sneezed out D) toward the epiglottis to be coughed out E) toward the throat to be swallowed or spat out
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e
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5) Which one of the following is NOT a function of the paranasal sinuses: 5) _______ A) they are olfactory receptors for smell B) they produce mucus C) they lighten the skull D) they act as resonance chambers for speech E) they help to moisten air
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a
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6) The respiratory conducting passageways perform all of the following functions EXCEPT: 6) _______ A) purify air B) warm incoming air C) humidify air D) exchange gases E) allow air to reach the lungs
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d
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7) Which one of the following is NOT a factor influencing respiratory rate and depth: 7) _______ A) levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide B) volition C) physical exercise D) enzymatic factors E) emotional factors
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d
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8) The most important chemical stimuli leading to increased rate and depth of breathing is: 8) _______ A) decreased carbon dioxide in the blood B) increased blood pH C) increased hydrogen ion in the blood D) increased carbon dioxide in the blood E) decreased oxygen level in the blood
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d
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9) What is the role of mucus in the nasal cavity: 9) _______ A) trap incoming bacteria and other foreign debris B) lighten the skull C) act as a resonance chamber for speech D) increase the air turbulence in the nasal cavity E) separate the oral from the nasal cavity
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a
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10) The homeostatic imbalance associated with the death of many full-term newborn infants is called: 10) ______ A) CTRL B) COPD C) CF D) SIDS E) IRDS
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d
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11) Which one of the following terms does not apply to the nose: 11) ______ A) nasal septum B) nasal cavity C) external nares D) nasopharynx E) nostrils
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d
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12) The gas exchange that occurs between blood and tissue cells at systemic capillaries is called: 12) ______ A) pulmonary ventilation B) internal respiration C) expiration D) external respiration E) respiratory gas transport
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b
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13) Which one of the following bones does NOT contain paranasal sinuses: 13) ______ A) ethmoid B) frontal C) maxilla D) mandible E) sphenoid
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d
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14) A very deep inspiration that ventilates all alveoli is: 14) ______ A) crying B) sneezing C) hiccupping D) coughing E) yawning
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e
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15) Which of the following are currently the most damaging and disabling respiratory diseases in the U.S.: 15) ______ A) lung cancer and asthma B) COPD and lung cancer C) tuberculosis and pneumonia D) tuberculosis and COPD E) asthma and tuberculosis
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b
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16) Hypoventilation dramatically increases carbonic acid concentration and involves: 16) ______ A) extremely slow breathing B) extremely fast breathing C) extremely deep breathing D) intermittent breathing E) irregular breathing
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a
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17) The flap of elastic cartilage that protects food from entering the larynx when swallowing is the: 17) ______ A) thyroid cartilage B) Adamʹs apple C) epiglottis D) glottis E) trachea
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c
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18) The respiratory rate in adults is: 18) ______ A) 20-25 respirations per minute B) over 40 respirations per minute C) 12-18 respirations per minute D) 30 respirations per minute E) 5-10 respirations per minute
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c
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19) Air moving in and out of the lungs is called: 19) ______ A) external respiration B) expiration C) inspiration D) internal respiration E) pulmonary ventilation
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e
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20) In order to inspire: 20) ______ A) the external intercostal muscles relax B) the intrapulmonary volume must decrease C) the intrapulmonary volume must increase D) the diaphragm relaxes E) gas pressure in the lungs must increase
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c
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21) Emphysema results in all of the following EXCEPT: 21) ______ A) expanded barrel chest B) moon face C) decreased lung elasticity D) enlarged alveoli E) lung fibrosis
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b
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22) Vibration due to exhaled air that results in speech is a function of the: 22) ______ A) complete voice box B) true vocal cords C) glottis D) epiglottis E) false vocal cords
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b
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23) When oxygen enters the respiratory system, what is the next structure to which it travels immediately upon leaving the trachea: 23) ______ A) tertiary bronchi B) main (primary) bronchi C) bronchioles D) pleura E) alveoli
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b
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24) The respiratory movement representing the total amount of exchangeable air is the: 24) ______ A) inspiratory reserve volume B) expiratory reserve volume C) vital capacity D) dead space volume E) tidal volume
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c
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25) Following the removal of the larynx, a person would be unable to: 25) ______ A) sneeze B) hear C) eat D) speak E) breathe
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d
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26) Cessation of breathing is called: 26) ______ A) tachypnea B) apnea C) eupnea D) hyperpnea E) dyspnea
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b
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27) Oxygen binds with hemoglobin in the blood to form: 27) ______ A) plasma B) carbon dioxide C) oxyhemoglobin D) carbonic acid E) bicarbonate ion
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c
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28) Which one of the following is NOT true of the lungs: 28) ______ A) the narrower portion of each lung is called the apex B) the bases rest on the diaphragm C) the right lung has three lobes D) both lungs have two lobes E) the left lung has two lobes
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d
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29) Exchange of both oxygen and carbon dioxide through the respiratory membrane occurs by: 29) ______ A) active transport B) simple diffusion C) facilitated diffusion D) passive transport E) osmosis
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b
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30) Which one of the following is NOT true of lung cancer: 30) ______ A) it is generally more prevalent in males than females B) it accounts for one-third of all cancer deaths in the U.S. C) most types of lung cancer are very aggressive D) lung cancers often metastasize rapidly and widely E) its incidence is currently increasing
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a
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31) Hyperventilation leads to all of the following EXCEPT: 31) ______ A) dizziness B) buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood C) cyanosis D) brief periods of apnea E) fainting
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b
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32) An emotionally-induced response during which air movement is similar to crying is: 32) ______ A) laughing B) sneezing C) hiccupping D) yawning E) coughing
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a
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33) Surfactant is usually present in fetal lungs in adequate quantities by: 33) ______ A) 20-22 weeks of pregnancy B) 28-30 weeks of pregnancy C) 22-24 weeks of pregnancy D) 26-28 weeks of pregnancy E) 24-26 weeks of pregnancy
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b
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34) Which one of the following is NOT true of cystic fibrosis: 34) ______ A) it causes oversecretion of thick mucus that clogs the respiratory passages B) it is the most common lethal genetic disease in the U.S. C) it causes sweat glands to produce an extremely salty perspiration D) it impairs food digestion E) it is rarely fatal
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e
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35) The amount of air exchanged during normal quiet breathing is about: 35) ______ A) 1200 mL B) 2100 mL C) 6000 mL D) 500 mL E) 4800 mL
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d
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36) The opening between the vocal cords is called the: 36) ______ A) larynx B) epiglottis C) glottis D) thyroid cartilage E) esophagus
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c
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37) The nasal cavity is separated from the oral cavity by: 37) ______ A) the nasal conchae B) both the hard and soft palate C) the hard palate D) both the nasal conchae and hard palate E) the soft palate
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b
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38) Obstruction of the trachea by a piece of food can lead to: 38) ______ A) pleurisy B) aspiration pneumonia C) pulmonary tamponade D) hemothorax E) pneumothorax
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b
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39) Which one of the following structures is NOT part of the respiratory zone: 39) ______ A) alveoli B) respiratory bronchioles C) primary bronchi D) alveolar sacs E) alveolar ducts
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c
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40) The walls of the alveoli are composed largely of: 40) ______ A) stratified cuboidal epithelium B) simple cuboidal epithelium C) stratified squamous epithelium D) pseudostratified epithelium E) simple squamous epithelium
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e
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41) The pharynogotympanic tubes, which drain the middle ear, open into the: 41) ______ A) nasopharynx B) laryngopharynx C) palatopharynx D) oropharynx E) tracheopharynx
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a
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42) The conducting passageways of the respiratory system include all of the following structures EXCEPT: 42) ______ A) nose B) larynx C) alveoli D) trachea E) pharynx
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c
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43) Which one of the following is NOT a feature of COPD: 43) ______ A) most patients have a genetic predisposition to COPD B) most COPD victims are hypoxic C) dyspnea becomes progressively more severe D) frequent pulmonary infections are common E) most patients have a history of smoking
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a
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44) The abbreviation IRDS stands for: 44) ______ A) intermittent respiratory distress state B) infant respiratory disease syndrome C) intermittent respiratory disease syndrome D) infant respiratory disease state E) infant respiratory distress syndrome
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e
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45) Tonsils that lie at the base of the tongue are called: 45) ______ A) pharyngotympanic tonsils B) lingual tonsils C) pharyngeal tonsils D) palatine tonsils E) adenoids
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b
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46) The molecule that prevents lung collapse by lowering the surface tension of the water film lining each alveolar sac is called: 46) ______ A) fibrosin B) renin C) surfactant D) lecithin E) resorbin
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c
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47) The amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled after a tidal expiration is about: 47) ______ A) 6000 mL B) 2100 mL C) 500 mL D) 4800 mL E) 1200 mL
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e
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48) Which one of the following is NOT true of inspiration: 48) ______ A) relaxation of the external intercostal muscles helps increase the size of the thoracic cavity B) the decreased gas pressure produces a partial vacuum that forcibly sucks air in C) increased intrapulmonary volume causes inhaled gases to spread out D) contraction of the diaphragm muscle helps increase the size of the thoracic cavity E) air continues to move into the lungs until intrapulmonary pressure equals atmospheric pressure
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a
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49) Air from the nasal cavity enters the superior portion of the pharynx called the: 49) ______ A) oropharynx B) palatopharynx C) nasopharynx D) tracheopharynx E) laryngopharynx
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c
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50) Most carbon dioxide is transported within blood plasma as: 50) ______ A) oxyhemoglobin B) carbonic acid C) bicarbonate ion D) hydrogen ion E) carbohemoglobin
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c
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51) The large shield-shaped thyroid cartilage that protrudes anteriorly is commonly called the __________. 51) _ ____________
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Adamʹs apple
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52) Normal quiet breathing moves about __________ mL of air into and out of the lungs with each breath. 52) _ ____________
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500
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53) Air that remains in the conducting zone passageways and never reaches the alveoli is called the __________. 53) _ ____________
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dead space volume
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54) Most carbon dioxide is dissolved in blood plasma and transported as __________. 54) _ ____________
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bicarbonate ion
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59) The presence of air in the intrapleural space is known as __________. 59) _ ____________
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pneumothorax
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60) Enlargement of the alveoli and chronic inflammation of the lungs are characteristics of a respiratory disease called __________.
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emphysema
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61) The mucosa-lined windpipe that extends from the larynx to the level of the fifth thoracic vertebra is called the __________. 61) _ ____________
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trachea
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62) The process of moving air into and out of the lungs is commonly called breathing or __________.
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pulmonary ventilation
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64) The anterior portion of the palate that is supported by bone is called the __________. 64) _ ____________
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hard palate
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65) A mechanism that clears the upper respiratory passages, which is similar to a cough except that the expelled air is directed through the nasal cavities instead of the oral cavity, is called a __________. 65) _ ____________
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sneeze
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66) Chronically inflamed, hypersensitive bronchial passages that can be irritated by dust mite and cockroach droppings are indicative of __________.
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asthma
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A procedure in which air within the lungs is used to forcibly expel an obstructing piece of food to avoid suffocation is called the __________.
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Heimlich maneuver
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69) ʺDust cellsʺ that wander in and out of the alveoli, picking up bacteria, carbon particles, and other debris, are actually __________.
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macrophages
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72) During internal respiration, the blood gas __________ is loaded into the bloodstream. 72) _ ____________
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carbon dioxide
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73) A normal respiratory rate of about 12-15 breaths per minute is called __________. 73) _ ____________
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eupnea
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74) The three mucosa-covered projections into the nasal cavity that greatly increase surface area of mucosa exposed to air are called __________.
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conchae
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76) The tonsils found in the nasopharynx are called __________ or __________. 76) _ ____________
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pharyngeal tonsils; adenoids
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77) The inspiratory muscles that contract so we can inspire air are the __________ and __________. 77) _ ____________
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diaphragm; external intercostals
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78) Gas exchange between the blood and tissue cells is called __________. 78) _ ____________
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internal respiration
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79) The smallest conducting passageways of the lungs are called __________. 79) _ ____________
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bronchioles
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80) The air sacs of the lungs are called __________. 80) _ ____________
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alveoli
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81) An abnormal bubbling sound caused by diseased respiratory tissue, mucus, or pus is called __________. 81) _ ____________
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crackle
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82) Inflammation of the sinuses that can cause marked changes in voice quality is called __________. 82) _ ____________
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sinusitis
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83) Oxygen bound to hemoglobin molecules on RBCs is called __________.
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oxyhemoglobin
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84) Respiratory capacities are measured with a __________. 84) _ ____________
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spirometer
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85) The flap of elastic cartilage that protects the opening of the larynx is called the __________.
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epiglottis
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87) The central area between the two lungs that houses the heart, great blood vessels, bronchi, and esophagus is called the __________. 87) _ ____________
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mediastinum
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88) The C-shaped rings that reinforce the trachea are constructed of __________ cartilage. 88) _ ____________
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hyaline
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89) The throat is also known as the __________. 89) _ ____________
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pharynx
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90) The opening between the vocal folds is called the __________. 90) _ ____________
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glottis
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91) Inadequate oxygen delivery to body tissues is called __________.
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hypoxia