Bilingual Supplemental 164

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Plyler vs Doe
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Allow children of undocumented parents to receive a free education
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Lau vs Nichols
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Better education for minority linguistic students
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Meyer Vs Nebraska
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Cannot teach German before 8th grade
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Castaneda Vs Pickard
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Three-part assessment responsible for meeting the requirements of the Equal Educational Opportunities Act of 1974 •Based on sound educational theory. •Implemented effectively with resources for personnel, instructional materials, and space.” •After a trial period, the program must be proven effective in overcoming language barriers/handicaps.
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Rios vs Reed
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Case: use of L1 while developing English Proficiency
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Ramirez Study 1984
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US gov sponsored study comparing the effectiveness of 3 program models: early exit late-exit developmental structured english immersion
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Air Study
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it challenged and identified flaws. Lacked Clarity.
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Biliteracy
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can read and write in 2 languages
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bicultirism
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2 distinct cultures present
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syntax
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sentence structure
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assimilation
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to get used to
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Linguistic Assimilation
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lose L1 while using L2
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acculturation
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members within the same society accept values/principles of other cultures.
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transculturation
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intro to new elements of culture
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phonology
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the study of sound
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morphology
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word formation. Words are made up of units of meaning called morphemes EX: CARS= CAR root word and S indicating plural
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Etymology
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is the study of the history of words, their origins, and how their form and meaning have changed over time.
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lexicon
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1 word has multiple meanings EX: HOT = temperature, fashion, or luck
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Reciprocal Teaching
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Predicting, questioning, clarifying, and summarizing contribute to comprehension.
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Graph- phonemic awareness
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Sequence of letters (or graphemes) represents the sequence of sounds (or phonemes) in spoken words. (letters = words) Dif. sound each letter makes in certain words
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Phonemic Awareness
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to recognize the phonemes (sounds). In K- rhyming/ orally producing/manipulatives.
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Phonological Awareness
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The ability to recognize the sounds (segment words into units called syllables)
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emergent readers
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use various formats to understand print
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Lateralization
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location of function of sides of brain
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Derivational Morphemes
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Begining of word EX: Pre, anti, sub
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Inflectional Morphemes
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ending of word EX: -ing, -s, -es, -est
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Fossilized
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EX: espeak or estring
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portfolio assessment
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track of progress toward language and content mastery
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cloze
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checking comprehension, a passage with omitted words the test taker must supply.
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standards based
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taught in a comprehensible manner
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Sheltered English Instruction
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Teachers modify to increase comprehensible input. Use of demonstrations, visuals, graphic organizers and cooperative grouping.
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concurrent approach
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teachers knows info and is able to pass down in both languages
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immersion
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only ENGLISH is used
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threshold hypothesis
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theory that provides support for late-exit bilingual programs 1) avoid negative effects of bilingualism 2) Experience positive effects of bilingualism.
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Alphabetic Principle
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Connect letters with sounds to create words
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submersion
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Both english and L1 are used.
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transitional bilingual/ Early-Exit Bilingual Programs
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•L1 and L2 used, with quick progression to all or most instruction in L2 •Assist transition to English. Goal: transfer to L2 only classroom.
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developmental bilingual education
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keep L1 while learning L2 for students to be able to function academically and socially
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Two-way bilingual programs: (dual language)
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50/50 balance/instruction between both languages.
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Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English (S.D.A.I.E.)
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teaching content in English to students still learning •Requires intermediate fluency in English and mastery of L1. •English content supported by L1 and comp. input Instruction
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self contained bilingual education
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receive min 45 minutes of ESL instruction to promote english development *Best ensures academic success
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discourse
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sounds->words-> sentences and larger to achieve oral and written communication
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convergent
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sheltered english instruction is more appropriate for students who are at the intermediate or advanced proficiency level in English
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natural order
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students acquire English structures in a predictable sequence with variations depending on L1 4 stages: 1) Preproduction (listening skills) – teachers chose level. 2) Early production (two words and short phrases) – teachers chose level. 3) speech emergence (long phrases and simple sentences) 4) Intermediate fluency – focus on maximizing comprehensible input in low anxiety situations.
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behavorists
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developed audio lingual method saying children are born with a clean slate-tabula rasa
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Proficiency level Descriptors
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Listening: Beginning: •Little or no ability to understand spoken English. •Struggle to identify words/phrases •Doesn’t seek clarification •Remains silent Intermediate: •Understands simple, high frequency spoken English •Understands simple or routine directions •Identify key words •Seek clarification Advanced: •Understands social and academic language with support •Understand longer, elaborated instructions Speaking: •Beginning: single words/ short phrases oLack English grammar •Intermediate: simple/ original messages oUse basic vocabulary/ emerging vocabulary •Advanced: Comfortable
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Additive
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use of L1 and L2 this fascilitates L2 acquisition
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Subtractive
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Slowly lose L1
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LPAC
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Responsible for identifying, placing, and assessing ELL (Composed of teachers, parents, and administrators.) •LPAC advocates assuring, affective, linguistic, and cognitive needs are met. •Review data upon initial enrollment and annually.
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LEA
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Language Experience Approach Promote reading/writing through personal experience (they chose the difficulty level of vocabulary/grammar)
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ELPS
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ELPS: Expectations for EVERY content area (all lessons must include both content objectives and language objectives) •need social and academic language skills •Opportunities to listen, speak, read and write using current skills and building skills. •Establishes Proficiency levels: (not grade-specific and students may be at different levels) Proficiency levels: Beginning- Use graphic org when taking notes or communicating ideas Intermediate- participates in guided discussions/can write summary
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TELPAS
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Texas English Language Proficiency Assessment System: check progress made in bilingual programs and try to get student out of program (determine student level based on observations and work)
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Cognate
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Spanish word that sounds similar in L2. •facilitate comprehension (by use of context clues)
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Cumming’s Common Underlying Prof- CUP
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cognitive academic skills known in L1 transfer to L2
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ARD
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admission, review, dismissal
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Writing stages
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Scribbling- letter like symbols Random letters-create individual letters in attempt to create a word (randomly selected/no connection) Invented words- students try to connect sound and letter i.e. Park = Prk
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1882 Act to Regulate Immigration
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Prohibited entry to people not able to care for themselves
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Naturalization Act of 1996
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must know English to naturalize
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Cultural Deficiency Theory
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says minority students do not perform well due to cultural differences
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Natural Defense Act 1958
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Funding for Math, Science and Foreign Language education.
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Civil Rights Act: Title VI (1964)
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prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, or national origin in the operation of federally assisted programs
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Immigration Act 1965
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immigrants welcomed for skills and professions (space limited per country)
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Bilingual Education Act- Title VII (7)
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provides funds for training and materials for a bilingual teacher.
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HB 103
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Defined English as primary language. Allowed for creation of Bilingual Education Programs K-6.
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SB 121 Texas Bilingual Education and Training Act 1973
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requires the starting of a bilingual program if no progress in LEP students
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No Child Left Behind
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Establishes English Language development assessment criteria for ELLs
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Chapter 89 of the Texas Education Code
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Requires BL and ESL programs- defines how students are identified, placed, and monitored.
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HB 1 (2005)
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LPAC must monitor ELL for 2 years after exit from program.
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Cognitive academic language proficiency
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Processing, memory, attention, logic, and reasoning
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Decoding
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long and short sounds provides L1 and L2 connection
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Word Maps
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help identify relationship between known and new words.
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Journal Writing
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Journal writing for ELLs allows to take more risks
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Factors affecting L2 acquisition
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•Time in US •Academic background •Home/ school env. •Literacy

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