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ATI Practice Exam Pharmacology The Immune System

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When caring for a patient who is receiving vincristine to treat lung cancer, the health care professional should monitor for which of the following findings that indicates an adverse effect?
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Weak hand grasps
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A health care professional is about to administer enfuvirtide (Fuzeon) to a patient. The health care professional should perform which of the following actions? (Select all that apply)
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1. Administer the drug subcutaneously 2. Roll the vial gently to reconstitute the solution 3. Inject the solution at room temperature
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A health care professional should understand that raltegravir (Isentress) treats patients who have which of the following?
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Resistant HIV disease
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While assessing a patient who is receiving interferon alfa-2a (Roferon-A) to treat Kaposi’s sarcoma, the health care professional should check for which of the following possible indications of an adverse reaction?
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Fever
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A health care professional is caring for a patient who is about to begin intathecal cytarabine (DepoCyt) therapy to treat meningeal leukemia. The health care professional should explain that the patient should also receive which of the following drugs to reduce the risk of neurotoxicty?
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Dexamethasone
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A health care professional is caring for a patient who is about to begin receiving cisplatin to treat testicular cancer. The health care professional should tell the patient to report which of the following adverse effects? (Select all that apply)
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1. Paresthesias 2. Sore throat 3. Flank pain 4. Tinnitus
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A health care professional is caring for a patient who is about to begin delavirdine (Rescriptor) therapy to treat HIV-1. The health care professional should tell the patient to report which of the following adverse reactions to the drug?
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Rash
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A health care professional is caring for a patient who is receiving IV carmustine (BiCNU) to treat multiple myeloma. The health care professional should recognize that the patient is at the greatest risk for infection for which of the following lengths of time after the infusion?
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4 to 6 weeks
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A health care professional is assessing a patient following a trastuzumab (Herceptin) infusion to treat metastatic breast cancer. Which of the following findings indicates an adverse reaction to the drug? (Select all that apply)
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1. Wheezing 2. Dysrhythmias 3. Hypotension 4. Fever Rationale: Trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody, can cause a severe allergic reaction, manifesting as hives, bronchospasm, dyspnea, and wheezing. The health care professional should have epinephrine ready to treat anaphylaxis. Monitor temp, ECG, and fluid and electrolyte balance
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A health care professional is caring for a patient who is about to begin taking mercaptopurine (Purinethol) to treat leukemia. Which of the following instructions should the health care professional include when talking with the patient about the drug? (Select all that apply)
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1. Use contraception is pregnancy is a risk 2. Perform oral hygiene frequency 3. Perform hand hygiene frequently 4. Avoid activities that can cause injury Rationale: Mercaptopurine, a purine analog, is a pregnancy risk category D drug. Women of childbearing age who take the drug should use contraception, and the health care professional should confirm non-pregnancy before starting therapy.
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A health care professional should question the use of anastrozole (Arimidex) for a patient who is
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Premenopausal When caring for a patient who is receiving vincristine to treat lung cancer, the health care professional should monitor for which of the following findings that indicates an adverse effect?
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When talking to a patient who is about to begin vincristine therapy to threat lymphoma, the health care professional should include which of the following instructions?
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Increase fiber intake Vincristine, a vinca alkaloid, can cause severe constipation and upper colon fecal impaction. The health care professional should monitor the patient’s bowel function and palpate the abdomen for distention. The patient should increase fluid and fiber intake, and take stool softeners.
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When caring for a patient who is taking flutamide to treat prostate cancer, the health care professional should monitor the patient for which of the following adverse effects of the drug?
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Gynecomastia Flutamide, an androgen receptor blocker, treats early and metastatic prostate cancer. It can cause gynecomastia, or growth of breast tissue, decreased libido, and impotence.
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A health care professional is caring for a patient who is about to begin maraviroc (Selzentry) therapy. The health care professional should tell the patient to report which of the following adverse effects of the drug? (Select all that apply)
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1. Paresthesias 2. Cough 3. Jaundice 4. Fever
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A health care professional is caring for a patient who is about to start ritonavir (Norvir) and zidovudine (Retrovir) therapy to treat HIV-1. The health care professional should explain that the patient will receive ritonavir along with at least one reverse transcriptase inhibitor to
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Prevent drug resistance Give zidovudine, a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, along with ritonavir, a protease inhibitor, to reduce the risk for drug resistance and to increase drug effectiveness. Monotherapy with zidovudine quickly results in drug resistance, as is also the case with monotherapy with ritonavir.
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A health care professional is about to administer IV paclitaxel (Taxol) to a patient who has ovarian cancer. Which of the following actions should the health care professional take? (Select all that apply)
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1. Give the patient an antihistamine 2. Administer the drug through non-PVC tubing 3. Use an in-line filter Prior to administering paclitaxel, an antimitotic drug, the health care professional should give the patient an antihistamine, such as diphenhydramine, a proton-pump inhibitor, such as cimetidine (Tagamet), and a glucocorticoid, such as dexamethasone, to prevent a hypersensitivity reaction.
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A health care professional is caring for a patient who is about to begin topotecan (Hycamtin) therapy to treat resistant, small-cell lung cancer. The health care professional should caution the patient about taking which of the following types of over-the-counter drugs while receiving the therapy?
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Ibuprofen (Advil) NSAIDs, anticoagulants, and antiplatelet drugs increase the patient’s risk for bleeding while receiving topotecan, a topoisomerase inhibitor. The health care professional should advise the patient against taking aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil), and other NSAIDs during the therapy.
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A health care professional should question the use of maraviroc (Selzentry) for a patient who has which of the following?
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Non-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5)-tropic HIV-1 Maraviroc, a CCR5 antagonist, acts by binding to CCR5 and preventing HIV-1 from entering the cell. It is only effective for patients who have CCR5-tropic HIV-1. It is contraindicated for those who do not have CCR5-tropic HIV-1
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A health care professional should question the use of cyclophosphamide for a patient who has which of the following?
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Dehydration Cyclophosphamide, a nitrogen mustard, is contraindicated for patients who have a fluid-volume deficit because dehydration increases the risk for renal toxicity.
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When talking with a patient who is about to begin methotrexate (Trexall) therapy to treat non-Hodgkin lymphoma, the health care professional should include which of the following instructions?
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Use a soft-bristled toothbrush Methotrexate, a folic acid antagonist, can cause severe bone marrow suppression with decreased thrombocyte counts and also oral and GI ulceration. Patients should use a soft-bristled toothbrush to prevent gum bleeding and mouth trauma.
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A health care professional is caring for a patient who is about to begin taking imatinib (Gleevec) to treat chronic myeloid leukemia. Which of the following instructions should the health care professional include when talking to the patient about taking the drug? (Select all that apply)
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1. Clean fruits and vegetables thoroughly 2. Weigh yourself daily 3. Perform hand hygiene frequently 4. Avoid herbal supplements
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A health care professional is caring for a patient who is about to begin taking tamoxifen (Soltamox) to treat breast cancer. The health care professional should recognize the need for cautious use of the drug if the patient also has which of the following?
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Cataracts Tamoxifen, an estrogen-receptor blocker, can cause retinopathy, cataracts, and decreased visual acuity. Its use requires caution with patients who already have cataracts.
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When considering drug therapy options for a patient who has metastatic breast cancer that is positive for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), the health care professional should choose which of the following drugs?
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Trastuzumab (Herceptin)Trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody and a pregnancy risk category D drug, treats metastatic breast cancer with tumors that over express. This type accounts for up to 30% of metastatic breast tumors.
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Unless there are any specific contraindications, which of the following immunizations should adults receive once each year?
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Influenza All adults should receive the seasonal influenza immunization once per year. All children 6 months older and older adults should also receive this immunization once per year
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A health care professional should understand that efuvirtide (Fuzeon) is an appropriate choice for patients who have which of the following?
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Advanced HIV disease Enfuvirtide, a fusion inhibitor, treats HIV disease that is advanced or resistant to other types of treatment. Health care professionals should always give the drug along with other antiretroviral drugs.