Art History #4

Flashcard maker : Chloe Barnes
What is fauvism characterized as?
Fauvism, the first major artistic style of the twentieth century, is characterized by an expressive use of color.
What was fauvism epitomized by?
This style was epitomized by the work of Henri Matisse.
What did cubism question?
Cubism questioned the “essence” of visual and pictorial reality, positing the assertion of the picture plane in modern painting. Cubism was very influential for later artistic styles.
Where does Analytic Cubism take its name from?
Analytic Cubism takes its name from the analytic experimentation of Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque in which the subjects of the paintings were broken down into essential forms which were composed of small cubes.
What was synthetic cubism based on?
Synthetic Cubism was based on the collage. Instead of breaking down the subject, the subject was constructed by piecing together pieces of paper.
What did German Expressionism begin with?
German Expressionism began with Die Brucke (The Bridge), a group which included Ernst Ludwig Kirchner and Erich Heckel.
What was Die Brucke’s works influenced by and what did they express?
Influenced by the paintings of Van Gogh, Munch, and the Fauves, Die Brucke works expressed the anxiety of urban life with psychological undertones.
What was the aim of the Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider) and who were the key figures?
Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider) was the second German Expressionist group, whose key figures included Vasily Kandinsky and Franz Marc. The aim of this group was to focus on the spirituality beneath the visible world.
What did Marcel Duchamp call into question?
Marcel Duchamp called into question the status of art, asking what art was and how it functioned. Marcel Duchamp developed the “Assisted Readymade,” testing the boundaries of art.
What did Constantin Brancusi reduce in his work?
In his work, Constantin Brancusi further reduced the form to abstraction, while freeing the sculptures form the classical tradition altogether.
Salon d’Automne
German primitivism
Art commune
Die Brucke
Der Blaue Reiter
Nonobjective painting
Assisted Readymade
How did the Fauves get their name?
Why is Picasso’s Les Demoiselles d’Avignon (27.5) considered to be among the formative paintings of early modern art.
Describe Brancusi’s Newborn (27.30). How did Brancusi use a minimalist vocabulary effectively in this work?
What factors led Kandinsky to arrive at non-representational painting?
In what ways did Marcel Duchamp’s “Assisted Readymade” test the traditional notions about what constitutes art?
In what ways was the work of Die Brucke, exemplified by Ernst Kirchner’s Street Dresden (27.10) informed by the Fauve movement and the paintings of Henri Matisse? What characterized this German Expressionist movement?
What is the “myth of Primitivism”?
Explain the technique used in cubist art.
In Cubist art, the continuous visual spread is broken down into its many constituent parts. These individual fragments are then recomposed through a new logic of design that is completely innovative and doesn’t refer to the original visual unit.
Who are the founders of Cubism?
Pablo Picasso (a Spanish artist) and Georges Braque (a French painter)
What was the first Cubist style?
The first Cubist style is called Analytic Cubism.
What did artists do in order to solve the problem of the “total view”?
In order to create a “total view,” artists began to analyze the forms of their subjects from every possible angle and combine these different views into one pictorial whole.
Why was Picasso characteristic of modern age?
He is considered characteristic of the modern age due to his constant experimentation, sudden shifts in types of painting, and revolutionary innovations in painting, graphic art, and sculpture.
What are the three sources of inspiration that can be seen in “Les Demoiselles d’Avignon”?
– African sculpture ( female figures on right-hand side of the painting)
-Ancient Iberian sculpture (female figures on left-hand side of painting)
– The late paintings of Cezanne (spatial distortion and radical perspective)
How does Picasso paint form and space in his Cubist paintings?
He paints form and space in a radically new manner (spatial distortion of objects and figures)
What does Picasso do instead of representing the figures as continuous volumes?
He fractures the figures’ shapes and entwines them with the similarly jagged planes that represent drapery and empty space. This pushes Cezanne’s treatment of form and space to a new tension between the representation of 2-d space, making a statement that paintings are a 2-d design lying flat on the surface.
How does the painting “Les Demoiselles…” break with the traditional concept of an orderly, constructed, unified pictorial space, that mirrors the world?
The painting is extremely abstract and represents a new representation of the world as a dynamic interplay of time and space. Picasso achieves this by employing different influences for his female figures and by breaking their bodies into ambiguous planes that suggest a combination of views.
Explain the new kind of “simultaneity” used in Cubism.
Instead of constructing a traditional simultaneous painting, in which a single scene constitutes a single event, Cubist artists employ a simultaneity of different viewpoints. According to this new kind of simultaneity, the consistency and representation of the image are destroyed, which produces an abstract form.
Not being restricted to a single viewpoint allows the artist to…
…see any given object in the world not as a fixed appearance of shape, but as a universe of possible lines, planes, and colors.
In what way does Braque’s painting “The Portuguese” challenge the viewer?
Firstly, it is difficult for the viewer to determine a certain reading of the subject due to the large, intersecting planes and variation sin light and shade, as well as the highly abstracted subject matter. Also, the stenciled letters and numbers play with the viewer’s perception of tow and three-dimensional space.
What is Synthetic Cubism?
The phase of Synthetic Cubism marked the monument in which Cubism no longer relied on a readable relation to the visible world. This type of Cubism consists of paints and drawings constructed from objects and shapes cut from paper to represent parts of a subject.
Why is “collage” a modern technique?
Its medium consists of mass produced materials that had never been used in high art. Further, the message of the art serves as the imagery and nature of these materials.
What was the seemingly irrational nature of Dada a direct response to?
The seemingly irrational nature of Dada was a direct response to the despair of World War I. Dada’s liberation of technique and materials opened new possibilities for artistic creation.
What was the Cabaret Voltaire group’s abstract collaged composed of?
In Zurich, the Cabaret Voltaire group included Jean (Hans) Arp whose abstract collages were composed by dropping pieces of paper onto the floor, with change determining where they fell. New York Dadism was focused on the work of Marcel Duchamp.
What is one of Duchamp’s most well-know works of art?
One of Duchamp’s most well-known works is Fountain, a urinal that he submitted for inclusion in the 1917 exhibition of the Society of Independent Artists. Duchamp called his Fountain an “Assisted Readymade”
What did Berlin Dadaim rely on?
In Berlin Dadaism was highly expressionistic and political, relying heavily on the technique of photomontage, seen in the work of Raoul Hausmann, Hannah Hoch, and Geoge Grosz.
What did Dadaism focus on in Cologne?
In Cologne, Dadaism was not as political as in Berlin, focusing instead on Freudian theories of the unconscious and mechanomorphic art. Max Ernst’s dreamlike works epitomized this style.
What did Man Ray use to express Dadaist ideas?
In Paris, Man Ray used the photogram to express Dadaist ideas, imbuing his “rayographs” with dreamlike qualities.
What did surrealism open?
Surrealism opened the exploration of the subconscious as an avenue for art, basing this style of art on the theories of Sigmund Freud.
What technique did some surrealist use to evoke the unconscious?
Some surrealists used the technique of automatic drawing to evoke the unconscious. This technique was linked to the Dada style of chance. Others, including Max Ernst, used the techniques of frottage, grattage, and decalcomania to tap into the subconscious.
What surrealist style did Salvador Dali and Rene Magritte incorporate?
Salvador Dali and Rene Magritte worked in a representational surrealist style, with dreamlike landscapes that not only tapped into the subconscious but also inspired the imagination.
What were sculptors inspired by?
Many sculptors were inspired by Surrealism to explore “universal truths” under the surface of things. Drawing on objects from the natural world, these artists worked with organic objects that resembled plants, animals, and microcosmic organisms.
What did constructivism open new possibilities?
Constructivism opened new possibilities for the consideration of space as a positive element in sculpture.
What did Henry Moore and Barbara Hepworth explore?
Henry Moore and Barbara Hepworth explored biomorphic abstraction in their works.
What cause did the Bauhaus embrace?
The Bauhaus embraced the cause of productivism.
What did the Bauhaus epitomize?
The Bauhaus epitomized High Modernist architecture, based on abstract, mechanomorphic styles linked to utopian ideals. In Paris this style was promoted by Le Corbusier, and in Amsterdam by the de Stijl.
What did American artist focus on?
While some American artists focused on issues of national identity, others, including Georgia O’Keefe and Alfred Stielglitz, focused on a spiritual art, turning away from the consumerism and industrialization of the early twentieth century.
What did others, including Grant Wood, paint?
Others, including Grant Wood, painted scenes from pre-twentieth century America, showing representational scenes from the Midwest.
The Cabaret Voltaire group
Mechanomorphic art
Man Ray’s “rayographs”
Representational Surrealism
The Machine Aesthetic
Art DEco
Degenerate Art Exhibition
In what ways is Salvador Dali’s The Persistence of Memory (28.16) exemplary of Surrealism?
What are the characteristics of Dadaism?
How is the “universal order” reflected in Piet Mondrian’s Composition with Red, Blue, and Yellow (28.27)?
What is Representational Surrealism?
How did the machine aesthetic influence the designs of Le Corbusier?
Why did some critics respond negatively to Grant Wood’s American Gothic (28.48)?
What is Pablo Picasso’s nationality?
Where did Picasso live in the 1920s?
What was the name of his wife?
Who did Picasso meet in 1927?
Marie-Therese, who became his lover.
In what ways does Picasso break with tradition?
Nudes are not graceful anymore, not beautiful in a traditional sense.
What is special about the portrait of his art dealer?
Picasso breaks with resemblance in portraits. Cubism, breaking up of forms. Not interested in pleasuring the public.
What do we learn about the political situation in Europe in the 20s and 30s?
Fascism becomes powerful.
Was Picasso a political painter in the 1920s?
No. He doesn’t combine radical politics with radical painting.
What are Picasso’s favorite subjects of this time period?
Himself, models, mirrors, rearranged body parts.
In what ways are Picasso’s relationships with women reflected in his art?
1) With his wife: aggressive, disturbing, not loving.
2) Lover: beautiful, round, soft forms, curves, erotic.
How did Goya’s work influence Picasso?
Disasters of War, bullfighting, rituals of slaughter -> drastic realism of violence. Goya’s images pull Picasso back to Spain, his home country.
Which European countries had fascist leaders in the 1930s and what are their names?
Spain- Franco.
What does the bull play an important in Picasso’s work?
Bull is an animal typical of Spanish bullfights –> symbol of Spain, but also expresses violence, power…
Ancient motif: the Minotaur in the labyrinth (Greek Mythology)
What is the name of the etching in which Picasso uses the bull as a prominent motif?
Minotauromachy, technique: etching
What are other important motifs in this image?
(Bearer of Light)
What is the mood created in this work?
Agony, dark world, dream/nightmares –> refers to modern (politically disastrous)
What is the object that can supposedly (and symbolically) stop violence in the image?
Light; comes from art
In 1937 Picasso was invited to participate in an exhibition in the following year. What show was this?
Politically committed artists were invited to exhibit their works at the Spanish Pavilion for the World’s Fair in Paris. Among them was Picasso.
Why was the painting Guernica so innovative?
Picasso created a truly modern history painting.
Who became Picasso’s creative partner during the creation of Guernica and took pictures while he worked on it?
Picasso’s new lover Dora Maar.
What are objects in the painting and preliminary sketches we are already familiar with?
The house, bull, and a light bearer.
How are humans depicted in his work?
They are suffering, screaming, have distorted bodies.
In earlier versions, Picasso included symbols of hope in his painting. Which ones?
A socialist fist of resistance. Pegasus, a mythical symbol of the birth of art and poetry , born out of a wound in the side of a shrieking horse. Does this mean “something good may come from blood”? Fallen warrior was originally stronger, more like an ancient hero.
Are there any symbols of hope still visible in the final version of Guernica?
The painting shows mostly despair and violence, but there is for example a daisy in it, and the warrior’s hand shows stigmata like the crucified Christ.
What does light symbolize in this painting?
The electrical single light bulb in an “evil eye” symbolizes violence, torture, death. The candle symbolizes art.
Why is the painting “Guernica” a symbol of modernism?
Cubist commotion, use of modern technique. Monumentality of a history painting was used for a political message, for the expression of the artist’s feelings about an event and his personal life.
Guernica has great authority and inspires strong emotions in the viewer. A viewer can sense violence and pain. It is very disturbing and may lead us to think about unnecessary violence and how to turn around.
The painting demonstrates how art has the power to speak to us, to affect our thinking and feelings.
Discuss the goals and interests of the painters associated with Abstract Expressionism. What role did Surrealism and other earlier twentieth-century art movements play in the formation of this postwar movement?
Explain the emergence of Pop art in the 1950s and 1960s. How and why did Pop react to Abstract Expressionism? Who were the major figures in the movement?
Assess the impact of feminism on contemporary art, concentrating on the work of two specific artists.
Analyze how contemporary American artists have used their art to address social and political issues surrounding race.
What did artists explore in the 1990s?
In the 1990s, artists explored a wide range of subjects including an interest in installation art, and the themes of racial, ethnic, and gender identity, and a preoccupation with the body. Central to this study was the belief that Modernism was over, and that art has limitless possibilities.
What did Neo-Expressionism recall?
A new type of painting emerged known as Neo-Expressionism, which recalled Northern Romanticism and Expressionism.
What were artists influenced by and what did they turn to because of this?
As more artists were influenced by Postmodern ideas, they turned to photography, video, film billboards, and LED boards.
What were some artists used appropriation to do?
Some artists used appropriation to explore how museums control meaning and manipulate visitors.
What occurred in the Postmodern 1980s?
In the Postmodern 1980s there was a surge in art dealing with issues of race, ethnicity, gender, and sexual orientation, as well as social and economic issues.
What did the closing decade of the twentieth century mark?
The closing decade of the twentieth century marked the rise of world art. While many critics suggest that the rise of global art would lead to a homogenization of art, this has not been the case.
Russian Constructivism
Post-Minimal aesthetic
Installation and Video Art
What is Deconstructionism? (Derrida)
What are the questions Postmodern artists would ask?
What pluralism?
What is appropriation of art? Why was it legitimate to appropriate art?
What role does globalization play in today’s art world?
What are the main pricipiles or concepts of postmodern architecture?
What is meant by high-tech architecture?
What new media/materials/techniques are being used by artists since the 1980s?
In what ways do artists respond to recent events or cultural changes?
What philosophy evolved in 1940s Europe?
In the 1940s, a philosophy called Existentialism evolved. The subject matter of this new way of thinking was the absurdity of human existence and the impossibility of achieving certitude.
What was one aspect of Existentialism?
Atheism was one of the aspects of this philosophy. The writings of Jean-Paul Sartre best express the existentialist spirit. According to him, if God does not exist, the individuals live in a world without traditional values and the fear of making decisions.
What was the overall mood of artists after WWII?
The overall mood of artists of the time after WWII was rather pessimistic. This is expressed in the roughness and brutality of many works art.
What do the sculptures of Swiss avant-garde artist Alberto Giacometti best express?
The sculptures of Swiss avant-garde artist Alberto Giacometti probably best express the ideas of existentialism. Giacometti was a friend of Sartre who saw the artist’s sculptures as pure expressions of existentialist humanity.
Describe the sculpture Walking Man.
The figures are isolated, solitary, and lost in the world’s immensity. The sculpture Walking Man is thin, nearly featureless, with a rough, agitated surface. The figure lacks the typical solidity of bronze sculptures. Instead, it looks fragile, almost dissolving in the surrounding space. This expresses the despair of the aftermath of the war.
When does Abstract Expressionism date back to?
Abstract Expressionism dates to the late 1940s with the work of Arshile Gorky whose style bridges New York Surrealism and Abstract Expressionism.
What did Abstract Expressionism later develop into?
Abstract Expressionism later developed into the gestural paintings of Jackson Pollock and Willem de Kooning, with the gesture, the physical application of the paint on canvas, being the focus of the work.
What did Pollock’s style emphasize?
Jackson Pollock’s style emphasized the forceful application of paint onto canvas.
What was the color-field painting style?
Color-field painting (used by Rothko and others) was a style in which large fields of color were used to express primal qualities.
What did Jean Dubuffet discover?
Jean Dubuffet discovered the Art brut– art made by untrained artists or by the mentally ill, adopting these styles into his own work. In doing this Dubuffet was trying to access a less inhibited style of art that was more connected to universal forces.
What was Francis Bacon’s contribution to Figural Expressionism?
In England, Francis Bacon’s contribution to Figural Expressionism was his intense psychological paintings.
What did Pop Art respond to?
Pop Art responded to the relationship between commercialization and popular culture in the 50s and 60s.
What did Pop Artists intentionally blur?
Pop Artists intentionally blurred the distinction between “fine art” and popular culture.
How did Christo and Jeanne-Claude transform landscapes?
Christo and Jeane-Claude transformed landscapes with temporary environmental sculptures. –> earthworks and site-specific art.
What kind of art was launched during this period?
Conceptual art was launched during this period.
What has expanded traditional definitions of art and sculpture.
Installations, Conceptual Art, and Performance Art have expanded traditional definitions of art and sculpture.
What did Modernist architects become increasingly concerned with?
Modernist architects became increasingly concerned with a formalism stressing simplicity.
What did Ludwig Mies van der Rohe work in?
He worked in the traditions of the International Style and the Constructivist Productivists, designing highly geometric buildings that appeared weightless.
What did architects like Frank Lloyd Wright and Le Corbusier use?
Architects like Frank Lloyd Wright and Le Corbusier used reinforced concrete in an almost sculptural fashion to create buildings with fascinating organic qualities.
What was the structure of the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum inspired by?
It was inspired by the spiral of a snail’s shell. Inside the building, the spiral expands toward the top. Visitors walk on a spiraling gently sloped ramp along the gallery bats. The shell-like structure, turning around a 90-foot open space in the center that is lit by a skylight, gives the sense of turning in on itself.
Abstract Expressionism
Gesture Paintings
Action paintings
Color-field paintings
Figural Expressionism
Art brut
A happening
Performance Art
Pop Art
Benday dots
Environmental art
Site-specific art
non-site sculptures
Conceptual art
Why are Jackson Pollock’s paintings called “action paintings”?
What is unconventional about Pollock’s working method?
What sorts of subjects did Roy Lichtenstein use for his paintings, and why were these subjects so effective?
What was the impact of Andy Warhol’s Campbell’s Soup Cans? How could this work be interpreted as a social statement?
What is an earthwork?
In what ways are Wright’s and Le Corbusier’s style inspired by nature.

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