APUSH The American Pageant Chapter 24 The Industrial Age, 1865-1900 Essay

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Union Pacific Railroad
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A railroad that started in Omaha, and it connected with the Central Pacific Railroad in Promentary Point, UTAH
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Credit Mobilier
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A joint-stock company organized in 1863 and reorganized in 1867 to build the Union Pacific Railroad. It was involved in a scandal in 1872 in which high government officials were accused of accepting bribes.
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Central Pacific Railroad
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A railroad that started in Sacramento , and connected with the Union Pacific Railroad in Promentary Point, UTAH
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The Big Four
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The Big Four was the name popularly given to the chief entrepreneurs in the building of the Central Pacific Railroad, the western portion of the First Transcontinental Railroad in the United States. However, the four of them preferred to be known as “The Associates”. Leland Stanford – President Collis P. Huntington – Vice President, Mark Hopkins – Treasurer. Charles Crocker – Construction supervisor and president of Charles Crocker & Co., a CP subsidiary. David Hewes, an enterprising businessman, was called the “maker of San Francisco” for his work in clearing land for development. He was invited to be a part of the Big Four (Central Pacific Railroad) but declined due to the financial risks. Over his lifetime he gained and lost several fortunes.
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Transcontinental Line
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The railroad line that spanned the continent from the Atlantic to the Pacific
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Northern Pacific Railroad
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This railroad ran from Lake Superior to Puget Sound
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Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railroad
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Railroads that connected the Southwest deserts to California
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Southern Pacific Railroad
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Railroad into Southern California that greatly sparked interest in that area, despite the former idea that Southern California was unfarmable.
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Great Northern Railroad
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The Great Northern’s route was the northernmost transcontinental railroad route in the United States and was north of the Northern Pacific Railway route. The Great Northern was a privately funded transcontinental railroad
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James J. Hill
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Driving force of the Gr. Northern Railway , Became a Shipping Agent For Winnipeg Merchants Nicknamed the “Empire Builder”
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New York Central
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old eastern railway welded to new westward rails, owned by Cornelius Vanderbilt
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Commodore Cornelius Vanderbilt
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Built the New York Central Railroad System
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Time zones
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Owners of the transcontinental railroads introduced America’s four time zones (eastern, central, mountain, and Pacific) in 1883 to help standardize their operations.
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Jay Gould
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United States financier who gained control of the Erie Canal and who caused a financial panic in 1869 when he attempted to corner the gold market (1836-1892)
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Stock watering
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Originally referring to cattle, term for the practice of railroad promoters exaggerationg the profitability of stocks in excess of its actual value
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Pool arrangements
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A ‘pool’ is an informal agreement between a group of people or leaders of a company to keep their prices high and to keep competition low. The Interstate Commerce Act in 1887 made railroads publicly publish their prices and it outlawed the pool.
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Wabash case
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1886 Supreme Court case that decreed that individual states had no power to regulate interstate commerce
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Interstate Commerce Act
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Established the ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission) – monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states – created to regulate railroad prices
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Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)
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The 1887 law that expanded federal power over business by prohibiting pooling and discriminatory rates by railroads and establishing the first federal regulatory agency.
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Alexander Graham Bell
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United States inventor (born in Scotland) of the telephone (1847-1922)
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Thomas A. Edison
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One of the most prolific inventors in U.S. history. He invented the phonograph, light bulb, electric battery, mimeograph and moving picture.
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Andrew Carnegie
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United States industrialist and philanthropist who endowed education and public libraries and research trusts (1835-1919)
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John D. Rockefeller
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Was an American industrialist and philanthropist. Revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy.
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J. P. Morgan
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Banker who buys out Carnegie Steel and renames it to U.S. Steel. Was a philanthropist in a way; he gave all the money needed for WWI and was payed back. Was one of the “Robber barons”
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“Vertical integration”
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absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in all aspects of a product’s manufacture from raw materials to distribution
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“Horizontal integration”
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absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in the same level of production and sharing resources at that level
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“Trust”
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a consortium of independent organizations formed to limit competition by controlling the production and distribution of a product or service
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Standard Oil Trust
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Rockefeller’s company, in 1881, owned 90 percent of the oil refinery business, with a board of trustees at the head
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“Interlocking directorates “
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the consolidation of rival enterprises, to ensure harmony officers of a banking syndicate were placed on boards of these rivals
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Bessemer process
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an industrial process for making steel using a Bessemer converter to blast air through through molten iron and thus burning the excess carbon and impurities
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United States Steel Corp.
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J. P. Morgan and the attorney Elbert H. Gary founded U.S. Steel in 1901 by combining the Andrew Carnegie’s Carnegie Steel Company with Gary’s Federal Steel Company and William Henry “Judge” Moore’s National Steel Company for $492 million. At one time, U.S. Steel was the largest steel producer and largest corporation in the world. U.S. Steel maintained the labor policies of Andrew Carnegie, which called for low wages and opposition to unionization. The Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers union that represented workers at the Homestead, Pennsylvania plant was, for many years, broken after a violent strike in 1892. Limited clashed over contract negotiations in what has become known as The Homestead Strike.
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Gustavus Swift/Philip Armour
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Founders of the American meat-packing industry. Targeted in Upton Sinclair’s muckraker novel The Jungle due to the absence of federal inspections resulting in tainted meat and eventually the passing of the Federal Meat Inspection Act of 1906.
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Gospel of Wealth
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This was a book written by Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists. This softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy.
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Social Darwinism
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The application of ideas about evolution and “survival of the fittest” to human societies – particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
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Sherman Anti-Trust Act
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an 1890 law that banned the formation of trusts and monopolies in the United States
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James Buchanan Duke
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Formed the American Tabacco Company, controlled 90% of the cigarette market
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The New South
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Yet another great essay question!
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Pittsburgh plus pricing
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The Pittsburgh Plus Pricing System was designed by steel lords (like Carnegie and Morgan) in the North to keep the South at an economic disadvantage in the steel industry. The southern coal and iron ore deposits were close to where it could be processed, which would give the South an advantage since they would have to pay less money for shipping. The steel lords put pressure on the railroads to charge the goods with a fictional fee as if they had been shipped from pittsburgh. It was also, in an indirect way, punishment of the South during the reconstruction after the Civil War.
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“Gibson girl”
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The idealized American girl of the 1890s as pictured by C. D. Gibson
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“Scabs”
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Strikebreakers hired by employers as replacement workers when unions went on strike
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“Lockout”
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a management action resisting employee’s demands
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“Yellow-dog contracts”
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A written contract between employers and employees in which the employees sign an agreement that they will not join a union while working for the company.
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“Black list”
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A list of people who had done some misdeed and were disliked by business. They were refused jobs and harassed by unions and businesses.
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National Labor Union
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1866 – established by William Sylvis – wanted 8hr work days, banking reform, and an end to conviction labor – attempt to unite all laborers
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Knights of Labor
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One of the most important American labor organizations of the 19th century, demanded an end to child and convict labor, equal pay for women, a progressive income tax, and the cooperative employer-employee ownership of mines and factories
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Terence Powderly
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Led the Knights of Labor, a skilled and unskilled union, wanted equal pay for equal work, an 8hr work day and to end child labor
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Haymarket Square episode
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A dynamite bomb threw when Chicago police broke forth to a protest of workers, 1886 – Downfall of the Knights; 8 anarchist bombed while protest occurs, 1 suicide, 4 sentanced to death 3 long terms, let go by Altgeld
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American Federation of Labor
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a federation of North American labor unions that merged with the Congress of Industrial Organizations in 1955 — The AFL of the AFL- CIO…
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Samuel Gompers
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United States labor leader (born in England) who was president of the American Federation of Labor from 1886 to 1924 (1850-1924)
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“Mother” Jones
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a dressmaker in Chicago until a fire destroyed her business. She then devoted her life to the cause of workers. Supported striking railroad workers in Pittsburg, and traveled around the country organizing coal miners and campaigning for improved working conditions. Helped pave the way for reform.

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