APUSH. Essay Prompts: the Whiskey Rebellion, the Great Compromise

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“Despite the view of some historians that the conflict between Great Britain and its thirteen North American colonies was economic in origin, in fact the American Revolution had its roots in politics and other areas of American life.” Support, modify or refute this interpretation, providing specific evidence to justify your answer. (Causation)
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Factors of economic conflict: Trade, Stamp Act, Townshend duties, Sugar Act-led to tension with colonies and British, implemented taxes for efforts to raise revenue, taxation without representation Factors of political and social conflict: House of Burgesses-representative colony set up by England to make laws and levy taxes but England could veto its legistlative acts; it set a precedent for future parliaments to be established, town meetings, Enlightenment-Great Awakening, Daughters/Sons of Liberty, virtual representation-British claimed that the colonists were represented in parliament even though colonists didn’t even choose their representatives and caused anger.Thesis: Though the British diminished capacity to determine their own destiny was important in bringing on the American Revolution, the British efforts to raise revenue causes were larger in economic origin. OR British desire for revenue and economic control was the primary instigation for the American Revolution, but political issues regarding self government contributed to the eventual war
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Evaluate the extent to which the Seven Years’ War (French and Indian War, 1754-1763) marked a turning point in American relations with Great Britain, analyzing what changed and what stayed the same from the period before the war to the period after it. (2015 Exam). (Periodization)
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Changes Economically: -stamp act, tea act -removal of French threat-Great Britain’s acquisition of French territory in North America after the end of the French and Indian War/Seven Years’ War -Brits begin to tax the colonists bc of their debtChanges Politically: -end of salutary neglect -proclamation of 1763- forbade all settlement past a line drawn along the Appalachian Mountains. -loss of self gov -French involvement in the Ohio valley -Boston massacre- increased taxing on tea Continuities: -common sense-sense of allegiance to the king but eventually gets snapped -external taxes, customs duties -olive branch petition colonists want to stay in the empire -indian alliances -all the acts Thesis: Despite the continued american loyalty to the king, the increased involvement of the crown in colonists lives caused the seven years war to mark a significant turning point in American relations with the British by Americans showing more resistance to British.
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Evaluate the extent to which the American Revolution changed the political, economic, and social aspects of American society from 1775 to 1800 (CCOT)
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Political: – articles of confederation they failed and they started over continental congress was formed to write constitution parties formed right off the bat when they were writing the constitution and the debate over The Bill of Rights democratic republicans believed that we needed the bill of rights and wouldn’t ratify constitution without it mostly western and southern states federalists believed that there was no need for the bill of rights the federalist stronghold was it the New England area Economic: -articles of confederation (attempts to be able to rise) -Declaration of Independence -Shay’s Rebellion -Bad Trade relations with British -went from being prosperous in trade to having a ton of national debt to worry about -out producing, which was prosperous -taxes had to be implemented -taxes on foreign products to stimulate their own economy -industrialize america??? -they needed a plan to bail themselves out of debt: Bank of the united states -we all must literally invest in the country Social: -common sense (T paine) -sons of liberty -loyalists vs patriots created more equality for white men white male property owners could vote -the Revolution saw the dawn of an organized abolitionist movement. – English traditions such as land inheritance laws were swept away almost immediately (primogeniture) . The Anglican Church in America could no longer survive. Thesis: The american revolution changed the society by forcing it to break away from British ideas and build their own beliefs, ideas, and rules in politics, the economy, and society itself.
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Analyze the ways in which political, economic and diplomatic crises of the 1780s shaped the provisions of the US Constitution (Causation)
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Political: -unicameral legislature and each state has one vote and it had to be a unanimous vote for taxation -popular sovereignty bc bottom to top governing -New Jersey and Virginia Plans Economic: -States couldn’t agree on proposed tariffs that would bring down debt-fixed in constitution by having central government in charge -Shay’s rebellion was a revolt by farmers due to economic problems, people upset about economic state of the country-Massachuets asked articles of assistance but articles couldn’t help -US bankrupt huge war debt -Before constitution each state had separate currency and could not control interstate trade Diplomatic: -Treaty of Paris of 1783- British gave them freedom but they still remained in Ohio territories and closed ports in British west indies and gave natives guns to defend against the Americans. -Annapolis Convention 1786- tried to fix the articles of confederation and find structure for gov-leads to constitutional convention Thesis: There were many factors that shaped the provisions of the US Constitution due to crisis in the 1780’s, politically there was a struggle about national governments rights of power, economically crises about how to solve national debt became factors, and diplomatically finding ways to cope with internal relations
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Which document, the Articles of Confederation or the federal Constitution better represented the ideals of the American Revolution? (Comparison)
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Articles of Confederation: -No executive with power -No system of federal courts -each state has one vote -no US bank -sovereignty resided in state-own state constitutions Constitution: -Congress has right to regulate trade and taxes -Constitution supreme law of land -Checks and Balances bc wanted to be unlike the British -Great Compromise Ideals of Revolution: -John Locke ideals -limited government -freedom -ability to control tax -representation Thesis:
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Evaluate the extent to which the new U.S Constitution (ratified 1788) was a political and economic turning point in the history of the U.S (Periodization)
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Political: -3 branches of government and checks and balances -Began congress(house and senate) and elected president -Brought more centralized gov compared to past -Ended Political Unrest -***The emergence of 2 political parties*** Economic: -Hamilton’s Financial Plan & Bank of U.S.- promote economic growth so has private investors for 80% and 20% of federal gov money and wanted national gov to pay off state debt which promoted anti federalists to be more supportive of the national government -Revenue Act of 1789 -Exice tax on Whiskey colonial farmers bc tax cuts into their success, leads to Whiskey Rebellion and causes Washington to form an army and shows power of national government and Constitution Thesis:
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Evaluate the relative importance of domestic and foreign affairs in shaping American politics in the 1790s (Causation)
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Domestic: -unification(financial plan and supremacy clause) -bill of rights -federalists vs antifederalist -western expansion (property rights) -Treaty of Greenville that Indians would maintain peace with Americans and Americans would protect and Western Confederacy cedes land to America in return for payments and protections-led to white migration -Whiskey Rebellion Foreign: -French Revolution- Proclamation of Neutrality where Americans declare neutrality and angers republicans bc their pro-British -XYZ Affair- Americans refused to pay French and led to a undeclared quasi war where Americans weren’t able to trade with french west indies -Jay’s Treaty stabilized British and American relationships and American access to British ports in west indies and Britain- south hated it because no compensation to slave holders and north liked it for commercial interests—British also removed troops from American soil Thesis:
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Settlers in the 18th century backcountry sometimes resorted to violent protest to express their grievances. Compare and contrast the causes and significance of TWO of the following. March of the Paxton Boys, Regulator Movement, Shay’s Rebellion, Whiskey Rebellion.(Comparison)
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Similarities of Shay’s and Whiskey: -Farmers rebelled due to unfair taxes -Mob uprisings -state governments led to inefficient taxation -anger towards government officials -events in mass created a strong argument for a need of strong national government-Henry Knox Differences of Shay’s and Whiskey: -Shay’s was state level -Whiskey was national level -Shay’s was before the constitution and Whiskey was after—realization of federal flaws -Whiskey was caused by the Whiskey tax and angered farmers -Shay’s caused by small farmers angered by the crushing debt and high taxation implemented -head tax was on farmers where farmers were taxed heavily whereas rich farmers were spared — if farmers couldn’t pay tax they lost land -Whiskey showed the power of the Constitution Thesis:
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Analyze the impact of the American Revolution on both slavery and the status of women in the period from 1763-1800. (CCOT)
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Slavery: -3/5ths compromise-for taxation and representation -Slavery not abolished to preserve shaky unity -Lord Dunmore’s Proclamation of 1775 all slaves fighting for crown would be freed -compromise -Stayed the same: slaves were still bound to slavery in certain places Women: -After Proclamation, idea of Republican Motherhood emerges-mothers had duty to raise educated and literate children -Female Academies-republican mothers so they could be well educated to fulfill republicans -Daughters of Liberty- household mode of production (wouldn’t buy British items-boycotts) -Abigail Adams -Some women took over businesses -Primogeniture was abolished,women gained property after man died -Women still didn’t have full rights and couldn’t vote Thesis:
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“Between 1783 and 1800 the new government of the US faced the same political, and economic issues that troubled the British government’s relations with the colonies prior to the Revolution” Support, modify or refute this interpretation, providing specific evidence to justify your answer. (CCOT)
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