APUSH EOC Study Guide

1st amendment
freedom of religion, assembly, press, petition, speech

2nd amendment
right to serve in state militia and to bear arms

3rd amendment
no quartering of troops

4th amendment
no unreasonable search and seizure

5th amendment
rights of the accused: grand jury, double jeopardy, eminent domain, due process, self incrimination

6th amendment
additional rights of accused (criminal cases): right to speedy trial, question witness, attorney

7th amendment
jury trial in civil cases

8th amendment
prohibits excessive fines and cruel and unusual punishment

9th amendment
rights listed are not the only rights of the people

10th amendment
rights not given to fed govt, nor denied to states, are reserved to states or to people

bill of rights
first 10 amendments brought about by anti-feds who opposed ratification of constitution; guarantees individual freedoms to american citizens; protects individual liberties; came about bc fed leaders traded it for approval of constitution

supremacy clause
article 6, section 2; const and fed laws and govt have highest authority when conflict arises with states; federal law>state law

necessary and proper/elastic clause
article 1, section 8, clause 18; allows for creation of whatever is needed in order to get job done; source of implied powers

delegated/expressed powers
specifically listed in const

implied powers
not specifically listed in const; found in necessary and proper clause

reserved powers
powers const specifically gives to state (ex. driver’s license, public education, marriage, local laws)

enumerated powers
powers const specifically gives to fed govt (raise and support army, foreign relations, coin $, post office)

concurrent powers
powers const shares among states and national govt (enforce laws, collect taxes, establish courts, borrow money, provide for general welfare)

hamilton’s economic plan
1. tariff of 1789 (angered south)
2. assumption of debt (after rev war/worthless continentals)
3. U.S. national bank (implied power –>loose interpretation)

whiskey rebellion
PA citizens refused to pay Hamilton’s excise tax on whiskey; rebellions; Washington takes 15,000 troops across Appalachians but then rebellion ends; establishes legitimacy of fed govt authority; leaders of rebellion pardoned

jay’s treaty
John Jay (1st sup ct chief justice) sent to eng to negotiate a neutrality treaty for reasons of commerce bc Washington and Hamilton thought they were our biggest threat; didn’t resolve issues of impressments

impressments of seaman
british seized and boarded ships and forced american sailors to join royal navy against their will

pinckney’s treaty
spain and u.s. establish boundary of u.s. at mississippi river; allows u.s. to store goods in port of new orleans (right of deposit); 1795 spain joined france in war against england and wanted to avoid hostilities with america bc they thought jay’s treaty was a sign that u.s. would join eng

president washington’s farewell address
1. entangling alliances would draw u.s. into eur wars
2. political parties would bring divisions
3. sectionalism – pitting one regional interest against another – north, south, west

treaty of greenville 1796
12 native american nations signed; gave up what is today Ohio and Indiana in exchange for yearly payments of $10,000; general anthony wayne defeated shawnee chief blue jacket at battle of fallen timbers which removed threat of future native american resistance and opened up settlment in northwest territory

xyz affair: quasi war with france
pres Adams sent officials to France to resolve conflicts from Jay’s Treaty; french leader Talleyrand sent secret agents X, Y, and Z to ask for bribe of $250 thousand and load of $12 million to see govt; taken as an insult “millions for defense but not one cent for tribute”

political parties
federalist – ultimate power with federal govt not states – alexander hamilton (sec of treasury)
JDR – states rights – thomas jefferson (sec of state)

alien and sedition act
during quasi war; gave pres right to imprison/deport citizens of other countries in u.s.; against law to write, publish, or say anything against usa; adams federalists used this law against jdrs

virginia and kentucky resolutions
in response to alien and sedition; argued for states rights; james madison wrote VA which established nullification; thomas jefferson wrote KY which established interposition

judiciary act 1789
congress organized judicial branch with 13 district courts, 3 courts of appeal, and supreme court; washington chose john jay as first chief justice; allowed individual citizens to sue members of govt to make them do something

marbury v madison 1803
1. midnight judges appointed by adams to keep federalists alive in govt
2. marbury sued james madison under judiciary act of 1789 bc he didnt get his appointment as midnight judge
3. sup ct chief justice john marshall declared judiciary act unconstitutional establishing judicial review

judicial review
judicial branch can declare a law of legislative branch or an act of executive branch unconstitutional thus making it null and void

election of 1800
1. power peacefully transferred; federalists–>JDRS; laissez faire
2. aaron burr makes NY JDR and he almost tied with jefferson
3. hamilton speaker of house hated burr so made sure jefferson had some federalist commitments (banking, credit, taxes) and on 36th ballot in hor he made some abstain so jefferson would win
4. 12th amendment passed in 1804 – electors vote separately for pres and vp instead of 2 president choices

convention of 1800
Jefferson ended quasi war with france which was sparked by jay treaty and XYZ affair

louisiana purchase
jefferson strict interperation; 1803 jefferson sent james monroe to paris to buy new orleans from napoleon; sold for $15 million/12 cents an acre; doubled size of U.S.

lewis and clark expedition
jefferson sends lewis and clark to lead corps of discovery through louisiana purchase; hoped to establish political boundaries, native american info, natural resource info; sacajawea indian guide who took them to pacific

chesapeake incident
american naval ship stopped bc of impressments; refused to be boarded bc it was in american waters; british ship fired on american ship and then boarded; 4 sailors impressed; pres jefferson decided no war but embargo of 1807

embargo of 1807
bc of chesapeake incident; halted all trade b/w U.S. and eur; economic embargo; doesn’t effect europe only south (tobacco and cotton rot) and new england (unemployment); made jefferson unpopular

robert fulton
creator of steam boat 1807; clermont 150 mi up hudson r to albany in 32 hrs; enabled river travel while carrying cargo on mississippi r

war hawks
during war of 1812 people who wanted war; henry clay and john c calhoun

non-intercourse act
replaced embargo of 1807 and was later replaced by macon’s bill #2 which proposed that if either nation (france or england) dropped their trade restrictions we would trade exclusively with them

reasons for war of 1812
1. british trade restrictions hurt southern and western farmers
2. western farmors blamed british for clashes w/ native americans
3. impressments of american sailors and seizing of ships
4. lack of respect for american neutrality

oliver hazard perry
1813 defeated british flotillas on lake eerie; kept british from invading north with many naval victories

fort mchenry
frances scott keys writes star spangled banner during this night long bombardment

him and his bro the Prophet wanted to remove white influence from ohio river valley; defeated by governor harrison at battle of tippacanoe in war of 1812

battle of new orleans
andrew jackon’s victory takes place 1 day after treaty of ghent signed (officially ending war of 1812); battle was one sided victory for americans that made jackson a war hero–>politically popular–>eventually president

treaty of ghent
ended war of 1812; neither side claimed victory and no land was exchanged; americans yielded on impressments and gave up claims over canada; british evacuate western forts and abandon aid to indians

hartford convention 1814
new england federalists protest war of 1812 and embargo act; discussed amendments to const and possible secession from union; when they got the news of jackson’s victory and treaty of ghent they felt unpatriotic and were dismissed by congress; federalists don’t recover from this

McCulloch v Maryland 1819
state banks unable to compete with BUS#2; state of maryland tried to tax federal BUS; cashier of BUS, James McCulloch refused to pay state tax; maryland state courts ruled against McCulloch but then he appealed to u.s. sup ct

panic of 1819
speculators – people who bought land way over value in hopes of selling it for greater profit
wild cat banks – issued too many notes without adequate security
BUS lost $, western wildcat banks closed by the dozens, speculators’ land foreclosed on and reverted back to fed govt

adams-onis treaty
spain ceded all of FA to u.s. and gives up claims north of 42 parallel in pacific northwest; bc adams encouraged pres monroe to take responsibility for andrew jacksons raids in FA demonstrating that u.s. could easily take FA

monroe doctrine
written by sec of state JQA compromising that u.s. wouldn’t interfere with existing eur colonies in the americas; if there was any attempt to create a new colony, u.s. would go to war; doctrine not really enforced

missouri compromise 1820
henry clay (great compromiser); admitted missouri slave state and maine free state; established 36’30’ parallel line where slave states to the south and free states to the north

election of 1824
usually sec of state–>pres; JQA was monroe’s sec of state but seen as federalist in disguise bc of his father; 5 candidates: crawford, clay, jackson, JQA, calhoun; bc of 12th amendment the top 3 candidates were sent to HOR; clay eliminated and was speaker of house – supports JQA with condition that he would become sec of state – corrupt bargain (says andrew jackson, who won popular vote)

spoils system
jackson replaced jobs of officeholders who didn’t support him with his political supporters; “to the victor goes the spoils” -william marcy

henry clay and the american system
favored national bank, protective tariff and national internal improvements; becomes driving force of whig party

whig party
advocated for: larger fed govt, industrial and commercial development, centralized economy; was comprised mostly of northern educated men who supported american system – fed govt should help shape economic development

election of 1832
national nominating convention replaced caucus system; president jackson believed caucus only let elite and well connected into office; national nominating convention let state delegates gather and decide that party’s presidential nominee and platform

pet banks
1832 henry clay’s amer system renewed BUS#2 charter that didn’t actually expire until 1836; jackson’s principles told him not to sign the bill but if he vetoed then clay would run against him and win; 1833-jackson attacked BUS#2 by pulling govt deposits and placing them in smaller pet banks

tariff of abomination
passed prior to election of 1828 by congress that favored northern industries but hurt southern agricultural economy; john c calhoun of SC will argue tariffs are unconstitutional bc to protect industry of 1 section they can’t penalize profits and exports of another section

south carolina exposition and protest
1828 john c calhoun (jackson’s vp) secretly penned exposition saying rights had right to prevent laws they thought were unconstitutional; similar to VA/KY resolutions – but calhoun outlined a way in which states could nullify

creeks, choctaws, chickasaws, cherokees adopted white culture – intensive agriculture, kept black slaves, lived in houses, school system, newspaper and books; cherokee-white silversmith named sequoyah developed 86 character alphabet adopted in 1821; good jacksonians in everything but color

worchester v georgia 1832
gold found in cherokee land; white settlers wanted to move there; chief justice john marshall said state of georgia had no authority over cherokee territory through worchester’s conviction and GA couldn’t make cherokees give up their land

indian removal act 1830
jackson pushed through congress what pres adams and monroe had advocated for; indians relocated west of Mississippi r – today oklahoma

trail of tears
pres jackson supported state of GA to forcibly remove cherokees and other southeastern tribes (on 1200 mile trek) to oklahoma; thousands died of hunger, disease; many tribes permanently scarred/demoralized

stephen austin
age 29 led first group of 300 americans into texas 1832; pres of 1832 convention; favored working thru differences with mexican govt in hopes of reopening immigration and to loosen tax on imports

the alamo
250 texans commanded by colonel william b travis held out for 12 days delaying mexican army led by mexican pres general antonio lopez de santa anna; delayed santa anna long enough for sam houston to prepare texan army to defeat santa anna at battle of san jacinto

alexis de tocqueville
french political philosopher; known for books democracy in america 1835-1840; vol 1 explained workings of american political institutions emphasizing democratic character; vol 2 social attitudes and customs in america; admitted how well democratic govt worked

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