APUSH Chapter 8 Study Sheet

George Washington
US Commander in Chief of colonial revolutionary army. First President of the United States.

William Howe
English General who commanded English forces at Bunker Hill. Left the English forces in New York for a battle at Philadelphia, leading to the English forces in NY to lose the battle.

Nathanael Greene
Cleared South Carolina and Georgia of British troops. Used tactic of retreating and having the British chase them for mile to win battles.

Benedict Arnold
American General in the Revolution. He prevented the British from reaching Ticonderoga. Later tried to help British take West Point and the Hudson, but was discovered and declared a traitor.

John Burgoyne
Burgoyne was a British general that submitted a plan for invading New York state from Canada. Was defeated at Saratoga, however. This defeat brought France into the war as an ally of the US.

Thomas Paine
Persuasive writer who published a bestseller called “Common Sense” in 1776. Had the radical idea that the colonies should set up as an independent republic from England.

Richard Henry Lee
Member of the Philadelphia Congress in the late 1770’s. Declared “These United colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states.” This resolution was the start of the Declaration of Independence.

Thomas Jefferson
Was a member of the House of Burgesses, wrote the Declaration of Independence, was ambassador to France, and was the President of the United States of America.

Patrick Henry
“Give me liberty of give me death!” Served two terms as governor of Virginia and was also instrumental in the development of the Bill of Rights.

John Jay
First chief justice of the Supreme Court. Also helped negotiate the Treaty of Paris w/ Great Britain, ending the American Revolution. Served as governor of New York State from 1795 to 1801, and was a advocate of a strong national government.

Mercenary
A Mercenary is someone who is hired for military service.

Natural Rights
AKA Natural Rights Theory, the belief that people are born with “natural rights” that are anything that involve people pursuing liberty, so long as it does not interfere with the rights of others.

Privateering
Privately owned armed Ships specifically authorized by congress to prey on the shipping of the enemies. They brought in urgently needed gold, raised morale, and harassed the enemy.

Natural Aristocracy
A society ruled by an aristocracy which arises out of work and competition rather than birth, education, or special privilege.

Republicanism
Power comes from the people not a corrupt monarch.

Popular Consent
All government officials, be it Judges, governors, Senators, etc., should be elected by the people.

Civic Virtue
Sacrificing your personal self-interest for the good of the people as a whole.

Second Continental Congress
A congress that met in Philly in 1775. The congress took on the duties of a government, such as appointing war leaders. This congress adopted the Declaration of Independence, and was dissolved once the Articles of Confederation took over.

“Common Sense”
A pamphlet that called for the colonists to realize their mistreatment and push for independence from England. It was immensely popular.

Declaration of Independence
A document that helped to start the American Revolution by allowing England to hear of the colonists disagreements with British authority. Was approved on July 4th of 1776.

Treaty of Paris of 1783
A treaty ending the revolutionary war, with the British recognizing the independence of the United States. It granted boundaries to the newly formed nation, which stretched from the Mississippi on the west, to the Great Lakes on the north, and to Spanish Florida on the south.

Hessians
German mercenaries hired by the King of England to fight the revolutionists. Called Hessians because most came from the principality of Hesse.

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