Apush Chapter 18 Test Questions

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Democratic politicians and others attempted to avoid the issue of slavery in the territories by saying it should be left to “popular sovereignty.”
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True
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The Free Soil party consisted of a small, unified band of radical abolitionists.
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False
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The California gold rush of 1849 diverted the nation’s attention from slavery.
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False
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Southerners demanded a more effective fugitive-slave law to stop the “Underground Railroad” from running escaped slaves to Canada.
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True
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In the Senate debate of 1850, Calhoun spoke for compromise, while Clay and Webster each defended his own section’s interests.
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False
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In the key provisions of the Compromise of 1850, New Mexico and Utah were admitted as slave states, while California was left open to popular sovereignty.
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False
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The provision of the Compromise of 1850 that aroused the fiercest northern opposition was the Fugitive Slave Law.
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True
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The greatest political winner in the Compromise of 1850 was the South.
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False
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The Whig Party disappeared because its northern and southern wings were too deeply split over the Fugitive Slave Law and other sectional issues.
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True
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The Pierce administration’s expansionist efforts in Central America, Cuba, and the Gadsden Purchase were basically designed to serve southern proslavery interests.
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True
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The Gadsden Purchase resulted in a general national agreement to build the trans-continental railroad along the southern route.
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False
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Douglas’s Kansas-Nebraska Act was intended to organize western territories so that a transcontinental railroad could be built along a northern route.
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True
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Both southerners and northerners alike refused to accept Douglas’s plan to repeal the Missouri Compromise.
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False
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The Kansas-Nebraska Act wrecked the Compromise of 1850 and created deep divisions within the Democratic Party.
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True
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The Republican Party was initially organized as a northern protest against Douglas’s Kansas-Nebraska Act.
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True
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“Popular sovereignty” was the idea that
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the people of a territory should determine for themselves whether or not to permit slavery.
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In the election of 1848, the response of the Whig and Democratic parties to the rising controversy over slavery was
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an attempt to ignore the issue.
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Quick formation of an effective government in California was essential because of
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the very large and unruly population drawn into the state by the discovery of gold.
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The proposed admission of California directly into the Union was dangerously controversial because
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California’s admission as a free state would destroy the equal balance of slave and free states in the U.S. Senate.
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The existence of the “underground railroad” added to southern demands for
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a stricter federal Fugitive Slave Law.
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Among the notable advocates of compromise in the controversy over slavery in 1850 were
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Henry Clay and Daniel Webster.
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During the debate over the Compromise of 1850, northern antislavery forces were particularly outraged by what they considered the “betrayal” of Senator
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Daniel Webster.
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Under the terms of the Compromise of 1850,
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California was admitted to the Union as a free state, and slavery in Utah and New Mexico territories would be left up to popular sovereignty.
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The final battle to gain passage of the Compromise of 1850 was substantially aided by
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the death of President Taylor and the succession of President Fillmore.
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The greatest winner in the Compromise of 1850 was
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the North.
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One of the primary effects of the Fugitive Slave Law passed as part of the Compromise of 1850 was
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a sharp rise in northern antislavery feeling.
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The conflict over slavery after the election of 1852 led shortly to
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the death of the Whig party.
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Southerners seeking to expand the territory of slavery were especially interested in acquiring
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Nicaragua and Cuba.
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The primary goal of Commodore Matthew Perry’s treaty with Japan in 1854 was
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opening Japan to American trade.
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Northerners especially resented Douglas’s Kansas-Nebraska Act because
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it repealed the Missouri Compromise prohibiting slavery in northern territories.
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Fire-Eaters
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Hotheaded southern agitators who pushed for southern interests and favored secession from the Union.
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Popular Sovereignty
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The doctrine that the issue of slavery should be decided by the residents of a territory themselves, not by the federal government.
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Mason-Dixon Line
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The boundary line between slave and free states in the East, originally the southern border of Pennsylvania.
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Underground Railroad
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The informal network that conducted runaway slaves from the South to Canada.
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Higher Law
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Senator William Seward’s doctrine that slavery should be excluded from the territories as a contrary to a divine moral law standing above even the Constitution.
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Fugitive Slave Act
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The provision of the Compromise of 1850 that comforted southern slave-catchers and aroused the wrath of northern abolitionists.
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Free Soil Party
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Third-party entry in the election of 1848 that opposed slavery expansion and prepared the way for the Republican party.
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Compromise of 1850
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A series of agreements between North and South that temporarily dampened the slavery controversy and led to a short-lived era of national good feelings.
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Whigs
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Political party that fell apart and disappeared after losing the election of 1852.
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Clayton-Bulwer Treaty
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An agreement between Britain and America concerning any future Central American canal.
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Ostend Manifesto
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A top-secret dispatch, drawn up by American diplomats in Europe, that detailed a plan for seizing Cuba from Spain.
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The Gadsden Purchase
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Southwestern territory acquired by the Pierce administration to facilitate a southern transcontinental railroad.
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Missouri Compromise
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The sectional agreement of 1820, repealed by the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
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Democratic Party
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The political party that was deeply divided by Douglas’ Kansas-Nebraska Act.
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Republican Party
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A new political party organized as a protest against the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
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Lewis Cass
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Democratic presidential candidate in 1848, original proponent of the idea of “popular sovereignty.” (B)
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Zachary Taylor
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Whig president who nearly destroyed the Compromise of 1850 before he died in office. (H)
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California
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Acquired from Mexico in 1848 and admitted as a free state in 1850 without ever having been a territory. (O)
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Caleb Cushing
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American diplomat who negotiated the Treaty of Wanghia with China in 1844. (J)
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Harriet Tubman
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Famous “conductor” on the Underground Railroad who rescued more than three hundred slaves from bondage. (D)
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Daniel Webster
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Northern spokesman whose support for the Compromise of 1850 earned him the hatred of abolitionists. (N)
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William Seward
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New york senator who argued that the expansion of slavery was forbidden by a “higher law.” (L)
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China
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Nation whose 1844 treaty with the United States opened the door to a flood of American missionaries. (M)
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Franklin Pierce
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Weak Democratic president whose pro-southern cabinet pushed aggressive expansionists schemes. (C)
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Winfield Scott
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Military hero of the Mexican War who became the Whigs’ last presidential candidate in 1852. (G)
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Nicaragua
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Central American nation desired by pro-slavery expansionists in the 1850s. (F)
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Matthew Perry
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American naval commander who opened Japan to the West in 1854. (A)
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Cuba
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Rich Spanish colony coveted by American pro-slavery expansionists in the 1850s. (I)
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Tokugawa Shogunate
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The ruling warrior dynasty of Japan with whom Matthew Perry negotiated the Treaty of Kanagawa of 1854. (K)
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Stephen A. Douglas
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Illinois politician who helped smooth over sectional conflict in 1850 but then reignited it in 1854. (E)
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The evasion of the slavery issue by Whigs and Democrats in 1848
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G. Led to the formation of new Free-Soil antislavery party.
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The California gold rush
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D. Made the issue of slavery in the Mexican Cession areas more urgent.
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The Underground Railroad
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J. Aroused southern demands for an effective fugitive-slave law.
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The Free Soil party
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A. Was the predecessor of the antislavery Republican Party.
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The Compromise of 1850
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E. Created a short-lived national mood of optimism and reconciliation.
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The Fugitive Slave Law
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H. Aroused active northern resistance to legal enforcement and prompted attempts at nullification in Massachusetts.
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The Pierce administration’s schemes to acquire Cuba
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B. Fell apart after the leaking of the Ostend Manifesto.
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The Gadsden Purchase
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F. Heightened competition between southern and northern railroad promoters over the choice of a transcontinental route.
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Stephen A. Douglas’s indifference to slavery and desire for a northern railroad route
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I. Led to the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, without regard for the consequences.
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The Kansas-Nebraska Act
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C. Caused a tremendous northern protest and the birth of the Republican Party.
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Texas and the Disputed Area Before the Compromise of 1850: A large territory claimed by Texas was taken from it in the Compromise of 1850, and parts of it were later incorporated into five other states. Which were they?
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Wyoming, Kansas, Colorado, Oklahoma, and New Mexico
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Slavery After the Compromise of 1850: Under the Compromise of 1850, which free state was partially located south of the line 36° 30′ (the southern border of Missouri), which had been established by the Missouri Compromise as the border between slave and free territories?
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California
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Slavery After the Compromise of 1850: Under the Compromise of 1850, which territory located north of 36 30′ could have adopted slavery if it had chosen to do so?
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Utah Territory
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Slavery After the Compromise of 1850: After 1850, how many organized territories prohibited slavery? Identify them.
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2: Oregon Territory and Minnesota Territory
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Central America c. 1850: In Central America, British influence extended along the Atlantic coasts of which two nations?
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Nicaragua and Honduras
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Central America c. 1850: In the 1850s, the territories of the future Panama Canal was part of which South American country?
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Colombia
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The Gadsden Purchase, 1853: The proposed southern transcontinental railroad was supposed to run through which two Texas cities?
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El Paso and Houston
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Kansas and Nebraska, 1854: The proposed northern transcontinental railroad was supposed to run through which territory organized by Stephen Douglas’s act of 1854?
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Nebraska Territory
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The Legal Status of Slavery, from the Revolution to the Civil War: In 1854, what was the status of slavery in the only state that bordered on the Kansas Territory?
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Missouri was a slave state.
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The Legal Status of Slavery, from the Revolution to the Civil War: Under the Kansas-Nebraska Act, how far north could slavery have extended had it been implemented in Nebraska territory?
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Up to the northern border of the United States, the 49th parallel.

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