Applications of Organic Chemistry

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plastic
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a material capable of being shaped or formed, usually an organic material of high molecular weight
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polymer
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a chemical molecule made up of repeating links of smaller identical molecules. “macro-molecules”
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are plastics polymers?
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all plastics are polymers, but not all polymers are plastics
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examples of nonplastic polymers
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wood, wool, cotton, starch, rubber, skin, hair
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how many plastics are there?
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60,000+ known plastics
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big six plastics
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named based on repeating structure of the monomers, each are given a recycling code
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how polymers are formed
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all but PETE are formed by addition polymerization reactions
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LDPE structure
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has branching which is why it has a low density (you can’t condense it)
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HDPE structure
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more linear, little/no branching, bigger than LDPE, organized in parallel chains, high density because a lot more can fit in a certain volume.
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HDPE vs LDPE
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because HDPE is more ordered it has… -higher density -more rigidity -greater strength -higher melting point
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what plastics are made of
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most come from petroleum
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extrusion molding
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-main process used to form plastics. -a heated plastic compound is forced continuously through a forming die made in the desired shape -plastic fibers are made like this
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injection molding
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-second most widely used way to form plastics -plastic compound is heated to a semi fluid, squirted into a mold under great pressure and hardens quickly. it pops out in the shape of the mold
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blow molding
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pressure is used to form hollow objects like bottles
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how much plastic is produced in the US each year?
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100 billion pounds
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ways to get rid of plastic
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1) incineration – pros: quick, can recover some energy. cons: fumes and environmental impact 2) biodegration – cons: doesn’t work quickly 3) reuse 4) recycle 5) source reduction – limiting plastics in the first place
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natural polymers
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first polymers wood, hair, tar, shellac, tortoise shells, amber, latex
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types of pseudo synthetic plastics
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vulcanized rubber celluloid
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vulcanized rubber
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-developed by Charles Goodyear in 1839 -uses sulfur to connect/crosslink with polymer chains which increases strength, durability, and heat resistance -EX: tires, sneakers, hockey pucks
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celluloid
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-cellulose (wood) + camphor (laurel tree) -EX: film, collars of priests, guitar picks
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synthetic polymers
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-bakelite -nylon -silly putty
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Bakelite
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-first synthetic polymer -EX: jewelry, home decor, telephone
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nylon
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-developed by Walter Carothers at Dupoint -able to be drawn into strong smooth filaments -EX: stockings, toothbrush bristles, fishing wire -used for WWII -EX: clothing, parachutes, rope
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silly putty
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silicone oil + boric acid
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dye
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to color or strain something (fabric, hair, etc) by soaking it in a coloring solution so that it takes on a new color permanently or semi permanently. it is a chemical change
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colorfast
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as you wash a material, the color stays
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lightfast
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does not fade in the light
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royal purple (tyrian purple)
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comes from carnivorous murex mollusks’ mucus that comes in contact with the sun and turns purple
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perkins mauve
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first synthetic dye
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direct dye
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dye molecules bond directly to the fabric
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mordant dye
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use a heavy metal salt (mordant) which binds to the fabric. Then the dye bonds to the mordant. -different mordant = different color
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difference in fabrics
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-different fabric = different color for all types of dying -different fabric structures offer different binding sites
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how polymers are formed
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PETE
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-code number: 1 -full name: polyethylene teraphthalate -repeating monomer: ethylene teraphthalate, C10H8O2 -characteristics: colorless, resin, light weight, good moisture barrier -EX: drink containers, peanut butter and salad dressing containers
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HDPE
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-code number: 2 -full name: high density polyethylene -repeating monomer: ethylene, C2H4 -characteristics: really strong, hard, opaque, cm withstand high temps -EX: milk jugs, yogurt containers, shampoo, butter, household cleaner bottles
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PVC/V
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-code number: 3 -full name: polyvinyl chloride -repeating monomer: vinyl chloride, C2H3Cl -characteristics: hard, good insulator, resistant to acid, salts, bases, fats, and alcohols -EX: window cleaner bottles, cooking oil bottles, plumbing, piping, bubble wrap
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LDPE
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-code number: 4 -full name: low density polyethylene -repeating monomer: ethylene, C2H4 -characteristics: nonreactive, flexible, soft -EX: grocery bags, 6 pack rings
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PS
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-code number: 6 -full name: polystyrene -repeating monomer: double bonded C, one benzene, 3 H -characteristics: rigid, brittle -EX: egg cartons, eating utencils
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PP
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-code number: 5 -full name: polypropylene -repeating monomer: 1-propene -characteristics: heat resistant, opaque, rigid, impermeable to liquids and gasses -EX: diapers, auto trim, clothes and carpeting
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name brand plastics
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nylon, mylar, kevlar, polyester, PVC, acrylic

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