Apologia Biology Module 7 Study Guide

Genetics
The science that studies how characteristics get passed from parent to offspring.

Genetic Factors
The general guideline of traits determined by a person’s DNA.

Environmental Factors
Those “nonbiological” factors that are involved in a person’s surroundings such as the nature of the person’s parents, the person’s friends, and the person’s behavioral choices.

Spiritual Factors
The factors in a person’s life that are determined by the quality of his or her relationship with God.

Gene
A section of DNA that codes for the production of a protein or a portion of a protein, thereby causing a trait.

Messenger RNA
The RNA that performs transcription.

Anticodon
A three-nuleotide base sequese on tRNA.

Codon
A sequence of three nucleotide bases on mRNA that refers to a specific amino acid.

Chromosome
DNA coiled around and supported by proteins, found in the nucleus of the cell.

Mitosis
A process of asexual reproduction in eukaryotic cell.

Interphase
The time interval between cellular reproduction.

Mother Cell
A cell ready to begin reproduction, containing duplicated DNA and centrioles.

Centromere
The region that joins two sister chromatides.

Karyotype
The figure produce when the chromosomes of a species during metaphase are arranged according to their homologous pairs.

Diploid Cell
A cell with chromosomes that come in homologous pairs.

Haploid Cell
A cell that has only one representative of each chromosome pair.

Diploid Number (2n)
The total number of chromosomes in a diploid cell.

Haploid Number (n)
the number of homologous pairs in a diploid cell.

Meiosis
The process by which a diploid (2n) cell forms gametes (n).

Gametes
Haploid cells (n) produced by diploid cells (2n) for the purpose of sexual reproduction.

Virus
A non-cellular infectious agent that has two characteristics: (1) It has genetic material (RNA or DNA) inside a protective protein coat. (2) It cannot reproduce on its own.

Antibodies
Specialized proteins that aid in destroying infectious agents.

Vaccine
A weakened or inactive version of a pathogen that stimulates the body’s production of antibodies which can aid in destroying the pathogen.

A DNA strand has the following sequence of nucleotides: guanine, cytosine, adenine, adenine, thymine, guanine. What will the mRNA sequence be?
Cytosine, guanine, uracil, uracil, adenine, cytosine.

A DNA strand has the following sequence of nucleotides: guanine, cytosine, adenine, adenine, thymine, guanine. How many amino acids will the mRNA code for?
Two

A DNA strand has the following sequence of nucleotides: guanine, cytosine, adenine, adenine, thymine, guanine. How many codons will the mRNA have?
Two

A DNA strand has the following sequence of nucleotides: guanine, cytosine, adenine, adenine, thymine, guanine. What are the anticodons on the tRNA’s that will bond to the mRNA?
Guanine, cytosine and adenine: adenine, thymine and guanine.

What are the names of the two phases of protein synthesis?
Transcription and translation

Protein synthesis is occurring in a ribosome. Is this a part of transcription or translation?
Translation

List in order the four stages of mitosis.
Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

The diploid number of a cell is 16. What is its haploid number?
8

The haploid number of a cell is 9. What is its diploid number?
18

What is the difference between a gamete and a regular animal cell?
Regular animal cells are diploid; a gamete is haploid

List in order all the stages of meiosis.
Prophase I, metaphase I, anaphase I, telophase I, prophase II, metaphase II, anaphase II, telophase II.

Which is closer to mitosis, meiosis I or meiosis II?
Meiosis II

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