AP World History Vocab Ch. 29-31

Flashcard maker : August Dunbar
marie antoinette
queen of France (as wife of Louis XVI) who was unpopular
marie gouze
Olympe de Goues, the self-educated daughter of a butcher who had become an intellectual and playwright. like many \”ordinary\” people, who found in the explosion of revolutionary activity the opportunity to address the public by writing speeches, pamphlets, or newspapers, Gouges composed her own manifesto, the Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Citizens (1791).
seneca falls conference
The first women’s rights convention, held in 1848. (4.4)
enfranchisement
a statutory right or privilege granted to a person or group by a government (especially the rights of citizenship and the right to vote)
suffrage
a legal right guaranteed by the 15th amendment to the US constitution
popular sovereignty
The concept that political power rests with the people who can create, alter, and abolish government. People express themselves through voting and free participation in government
nationalism
Political ideology that stresses people’s membership in a nation-a community defined by a common culture and history as well as by territory. In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, nationalism was a force for unity in western Europe (713)
napoleon bonaparte
Overthrew French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.
american revolution
the war between Great Britain and its American colonies, 1775-83, by which the colonies won their independence.
seven years’ war
fought between England and France, 1756-1763; known as the French and Indian War in the colonies, it started in 1754, over control of the Ohio River Valley and resulted in France’s withdrawal from North America. It was the impetus for Parliament’s taxing policy that led to the American Revolution.
french revolution
the revolution that began in 1789, overthrew the absolute monarchy of the Bourbons and the system of aristocratic privileges, and ended with Napoleon’s overthrow of the Directory and seizure of power in 1799.
ancien regime
a political and social system that no longer governs (especially the system that existed in France before the French Revolution) — \”Old Order\” —
estates general
France’s traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of the Estates General in 1789 led to the French Revolution.
louis xiv
king of France from 1643 to 1715; his long reign was marked by the expansion of French influence in Europe and by the magnificence of his court and the Palace of Versailles (1638-1715)
third estate
the third estate of the realm
national assembly
French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789. (p. 585)
bastille
Medieval fortress that was converted to a prison stormed by peasants for ammunition during the early stages of the French Revolution.
\”liberty, equality, and fraternity\”
slogan of the french revolution that inspired nationalist feelings and the goal of the revolution –ENLIGHTENMENT IDEAS!–
maximilien robespierre
\”The incorruptable;\” the leader of the bloodiest portion of the French Revolution. He set out to build a republic of virtue.
coup d’ etat
(French) a sudden, powerful political stroke, esp. the forcible overthrow of government.
haitian revolution
Toussaint l’Ouverture led this uprising, which in 1790 resulted in the successful overthrow of French colonial rule on this Caribbean island. This revolution set up the first black government in the Western Hemisphere and the world’s second democratic republic (after the US). The US was reluctant to give full support to this republic led by former slaves.
saint-domingue
(modern-day Haiti) French sugar colony that had the ONLY slave revolt that resulted in the abolition of slavery
toussaint l’ ouverture
was an important leader of the Haïtian Revolution and the first leader of a free Haiti. In a long struggle again the institution of slavery, he led the blacks to victory over the whites and free coloreds and secured native control over the colony in 1797, calling himself a dictator.
maroon societies
communities of runaway slaves, survival of african traditions such as house designs, community organizations and language in caribbean
miguel de hidalgo
Mexican priest who established an independence movement among Indians and mestizos in 1810; after early victories he was captured and executed.
mexican independence
Creoles fearing loss of privileges joined together, led by Agustin de Iturbide to declare Mexican’s independence in 1821. Iturbide was overthrown in 1821 and CEntral America had independence from Mexico.
simon bolivar
The most important military leader in the struggle for independence in South America. Born in Venezuela, he led military forces there and in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia.
jamaica letter
written by Simón Bolívar in response to a letter from Henry Cullen, in which he put forward the reasons that caused the fall of the Second Republic of Venezuela within the context of the independence of the nation; fundamental objective was to gain the attention of the most powerful liberal nation of the 19th century, Britain, with the aim that it would decide to involve itself in American independence
gran colombia
Independent state created in South America as a result of military successes of Simon Bolívar; existed only until 1830, at which time Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador became separate nations.
conservatism
a political or theological orientation advocating the preservation of the best in society and opposing radical changes
edmund burke
English statesman famous for his oratory, A conservative leader who was deeply troubled by the aroused spirit of reform. In 1790, he published Reforms on The Revolution in France, one of the greatest intellectual defenses of European conservatism. He defended inherited priveledges in general and those of the English monarchy and aristocracy. Glorified unrepresentitive Parliament and predicted reform would lead to much chaos/tyranny.
liberalism
A political ideology that emphasizes the civil rights of citizens, representative government, and the protection of private property. This ideology, derived from the Enlightenment, was especially popular among the property-owning middle classes.
john stuart mill
English Philosopher, Benthamite, wrote \”On Liberty\”, Essay that talked about problem of how to prortect the rights of individuals and minorities in the emerging age of mass electoral paricipation. Advocated right of workers to organize, equality for women, and universal suffrage
olaudah equiano
An antislavery activist who wrote an account of his enslavement.
abolitionism
The militant effort to do away with slavery. It began in the north in the 1700’s. Becoming a major issue in the 1830’s, it dominated politics by the 1840’s. Congress became a battle ground between the pro and anti slavery forces
william wilberforce
British statesman and reformer; leader of abolitionist movement in English parliament that led to end of English slave trade in 1807.
mary wollstonecraft
English writer and early feminist who denied male supremacy and advocated equal education for women, British feminist of the eighteenth century who argued for women’s equality with men, even in voting, in her 1792 \”Vindication of the Rights of Women.\”
nation
a group of people with a common culture living in a territory and having a strong sense of unity
anti-semitism
prejudice against Jews
zionism
a movement of world Jewry that arose late in the 19th century with the aim of creating a Jewish state in Palestine
congress of vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon I. (p. 594)
otto von bismarck
Chancellor of Prussia from 1862 until 1871, when he became chancellor of Germany. A conservative nationalist, he led Prussia to victory against Austria (1866) and France (1870) and was responsible for the creation of the German Empire (714)
voltaire
French writer who was the embodiment of 18th century Enlightenment (1694-1778)
locke
Wrote Two Treatises of Government. Said human nature lived free and had the natural rights of life, liberty, and property. He said government was created in order to protect these rights and if the government failed to do so it was the duty of the people to rebel.
montesquieu
the Enlighenment writer who believed in seperation of powers
rousseau
believed people in their natural state were basically good but that they were corrupted by the evils of society, especially the uneven distribution of property
industrialization
the development of industries for the machine production of goods
mechanization
use of automatic machinery to increase production
adam smith
Economist who wrote Wealth of Nations; Laissez-Faire economics
luddites
Any of a group of British workers who between 1811 and 1816 rioted and destroyed laborsaving textile machinery in the belief that such machinery would diminish employment.
capitalism
an economic system based on private ownership of capital
mass production
the production of large quantities of a standardized article (often using assembly line techniques)
corporations
businesses that are owned by many investors who buy shares of stock
monopolies
Corporations that gain complete control of the production of a single good or service.
cartel
a formal organization of producers that agree to coordinate prices and production
demographic transition
change in a population from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates
tenements
Urban apartment buildings that served as housing for poor factory workers. Often poorly constructed and overcrowded.
utopian socialism
Philosophy introduced by the Frenchman Charles Fourier in the early nineteenth century. Utopian socialists hoped to create humane alternatives to industrial capitalism by building self-sustaining communities whose inhabitants would work cooperatively (616
socialism
A system in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns and controls the means of production.
marxism
the political, economic, and social principles espoused by 19th century economist Karl Marx; he viewed the struggle of workers as a progression of historical forces that would proceed from a class struggle of the proletariat (workers) exploited by capitalists (business owners), to a socialist \”dictatorship of the proletariat,\” to, finally, a classless society – Communism.
karl marx
German philosopher, economist, and revolutionary. With the help and support of Friedrich Engels he wrote The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (1867-1894). These works explain historical development in terms of the interaction of contradictory economic forces, form the basis of all communist theory, and have had a profound influence on the social sciences.
friedrich engels
another German communist who aided Marx in writing The Communist Manifesto; German social scientist, author, political theorist, philosopher, and father of communist theory, alongside Karl Marx.
the communist manifesto
The book written by Karl Marx and Frederich Engels that outlined how every society in the world would eventually reach communism.
trade unions
early labor organizations that brought together workers in the same trade, or job, to fight for better wages and working conditions
trans-siberian railroad
Constructed in 1870s to connect European Russia with the Pacific; completed by the end of the 1880s; brought Russia into a more active Asian role.
zaibatsu
The large family-controlled banking and industrial groups that owned many companies in Japan before World War II.
manifest destiny
This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from \”sea to sea,\” from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.
mexican-american war
Polk wanted tdo also aquire California/New Mexico region. Polk resorted to an agressive method by sending troops to disputed area. US declared war on Mex. when hostilities arose. Americans captured Mexico City. Santa Anna fled, war ended
u.s. civil war
A conflict between Northern and Southern states of the US over the issue of slavery, lasting from 1861-65.
emancipation of slaves
made the abolition of slavery an explicit goal of the war., Slaves worked to obtain equal rights, 1834.
creole elites
People who wanted to treat their nations as private estates, so they did not engage in much foreign trade. They were of the upper class in Latin America, and wanted to self-govern.
caudillos
independent leaders who dominated local areas by force in defiance of national policies; sometimes seized national governments to impose their concept of rule; typical throughout newly independent countries of latin america.
benito juarez
Mexican national hero; brought liberal reforms to Mexico, including separation of church and state, land distribution to the poor, and an educational system for all of Mexico
la reforma
1855, Benito Juarez and other liberals open an era; offered hope to oppressed people of Mexico, revised the Mexican constitution to strip military power and end Church privileges; unleashed a civil war, but was still elected president in 1861
porfirio diaz
a dictator who dominated Mexico, permitted foriegn companies to develop natural resources and had allowed landowners to buy much of the countries land from poor peasants
emiliano zapata
leading figure in the Mexican Revolution, he led farmers from the south, in the mostly Indian state of Morelos to revolt against Porfirio Diaz; faught for farmers’ rights; gathered army in southern Mexico and urged farmers to join; Liberation Army of the South.
tierra y libertad
land and liberty
pancho villa
A popular leader during the Mexican Revolution of 1910. An outlaw in his youth, when the revolution started, he formed a cavalry army in the north of Mexico and fought for the rights of the landless in collaboration with Emiliano Zapata.
indentured laborers
Laborers who in exchange for passage agreed to work for a number of years, specified in contract.
metis
a half-breed of white and Indian parentage
gauchos
Bands of mounted rural workers in the region of the Rio de la Plata; aided local caudillos in splitting apart the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata after 1816.

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