AP World History- Period 5 (1750-1900) Vocab./People

Flashcard maker : Paula Corcoran
Karl Marx
German philosopher, economist, sociologist,journalist, and revolutionary socialist ; inspired a radical form of socialism ; communist manifesto
Friedrich Engels
co-author of Karl Marx, who helped Karl Marx introduce Marxism
Communist Manifesto
23 page pamphlet written by Karl Marx and co-author Friedrich Engels; two classes : Proletariat (lower class workers) , Bourgeoisie (middle class employers)
John D. Rockefeller (Standard Oil Company)
Founded the Standard Oil Company, which controlled 88% of the oil market by 1890
Henry Ford (Assembly Line Method)
American industrialist who introduced the first moving assembly line for the mass products of an entire automobile and it reduced the time it took to build a car from more than 12 hours to 2 hours and 30 minutes
Eli Whitney (Cotton Gin)
American inventor best known for inventing the Cotton Gin, a machine that revolutionized the production of cotton by greatly speeding up the process of removing seeds from cotton fiber
James Watt
A mathematical instrument maker at the University of Glasgow in Scotland who figured out ways to make the Steam Engine more efficient, faster, and burn less fuel
Henry Bessemer (Bessemer Converter)
Inventor and engineer who developed the first process for in expensively and the Bessemer Process. Bessemer Converter was a refractory-lined furnace used to concert pig iron into steel by the Bessemer Process
Thomas Malthus
English economist and demographer who is best known for his theory that population growth will always tend to outrun the food supply and that betterment of humankind is impossible without stern limits on reproduction–\”Malthusianism\”
Laissez-Faire
tern that refers to the economic policy of letting owners of industry and business set working conditions without interference
Socialism
A form of an economic system that Saint Simon and others sought to offset the ill effects of industrialization by; the factors of production is owned and ran by the people, for the people; form of \”Utopia\” for all.
Utopian Socialism
socialism based on a belief that social ownership of the means of production can be achieved by voluntary and peaceful surrender of their holdings by propertied groups
Marxism
radical type of socialism introduced by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in which the concept of class struggle plays a central role in understanding society’s allegedly inevitable development from bourgeois oppression under capitalism to a socialist and ultimately classless society
Communism
Karl Marx describes it as : a form of complete socialism in which the means of production–all land, mines, factories, railroads, and businesses-would be owned by the people
Anarchism
a political theory holding all forms of governmental authority to be unnecessary and undesirable and advocating a society based on voluntary cooperation and free association of individuals and groups
Bourgeoisie
middle class empoyers ; owned factories
Proletariat
lower class workers
Rudyard Kipling (\”White Man’s Burden\”)
White Man’s Burden was a poem originally by Rudyard Kipling that held a perceived responsibility of bringing Christianity and civilization to developing countries
Cecil Rhodes
successful businessman and a major supporter of the British expansion
Queen Lil’iokalani
Hawaii’s only queen and the last monarch of Hawaii. She called for a new constitution that would increase her power in 1893 but a group of American businessmen hatched a plot to overthrow the Hawaiian monarchy so she was removed from power.
Social Darwinism
theory of Charles Darwin in which those who were the fittest for survival enjoyed wealth and success and were considered superior to others
Emilio Aguinaldo
leader of the Filipino nationalists during the Spanish-American War who claimed that the U.S had promised immediate independence after the Spanish-American War ended.
Sepoy Mutiny
\”Indian Mutiny\” , discontent with British administration in India led to numerous mutinies in 1857 and 1858; the revolt was put down after several battles and sieges
Muhammed Ali of Egypt
common soldier who rose to leadership as a result of his military skill and political shrewdness; he personally directed a shift of Egyptian agriculture to a plantation cash crop– cotton.
Suez Canal
101 mile long canal that connects the Red Sea to the Mediterranean; built mainly with French money from private interest groups, using Egyptian labor; opened in 1869
Theodore Roosevelt
advocated the building of a powerful American navy, and the United States sponsored the building of the Panama Canal to allow the new Great White Fleet access to both east and west coasts of the country.
Monroe Doctrine
document issued by President James Monroe that stated \”the American continents.. are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers\”
Panama Canal
water passage across the isthmus of Panama that links to the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean; took 10 years to build- opened in 1914 ; handles more than 13,000 ships a year from around 70 nations carrying 192 million short tons of cargo ; Panama took control of the canal on Dec. 31, 1999
Spanish-American War
in which the United States joined the Cuban war for independence, it lasted about 4 months; U.S. forces launched their first attack not on Cuba but on the Philippine islands; spanish military quickly collapsed.
Opium War
First Opium War: China and Britain
Second Opium War: Britain and France ; British went to war to force the Chinese to permit the importation of opium , and won.
Berlin Conference
a meeting between European nations to create rules on how to peacefully divide Africa among them for colonization; conference was convened by Portugal but led by Otto von Bismarck, chancellor of the newly united Germany. Though invited, the U.S. declined to participate
Russo-Japanese War
war between Japan and Russia during 1904 in which Japan launched a surprise attack on Russian ships anchored off the coast of Manchuria
Open Door Policy
policy declared by the United States to propose that China’s \”doors\” be open to merchants of all nation; protected both U.S trading rights in China, and China’s freedom from colonization.

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