AP World History Chapters 26-27

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Matteo Ricci
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Jesuit missionary who introduced self-ringing clocks to China with hopes of wowing the Chinese and then converting them to Christianity
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Ming dynasty
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Founded by Hongwu after he drove the Mongols from China. Made extensive use of mandarins and eunuchs in administration. The Great Wall was a project of the Ming dynasty. The dynasty declined because of pirates, smugglers, and corruption and inefficiency of government. The Manchus ended the dynasty after suppressing peasant rebels and taking power.
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Yongle
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A Ming emperor who launched a series of naval expeditions that sailed throughout the Indian Ocean Basin to establish Chinese presence there.
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Hongwu
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Founder of the Ming dynasty after he expelled the Mongols of the Yuan dynasty.
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The Great Wall
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Built during the Ming dynasty by emperors seeking to protect their realm by building new fortifications along the northern border
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The Manchus
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Pastoral nomads who settled in southern Manchuria and gained control of China under the Qing dynasty after allying with the Ming to crush rebels and never returning power to the Ming government.
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The Qing dynasty
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The Chinese dynasty that followed the Ming dynasty. Founded by the Manchus after helping the Ming defeat rebels.
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Kangxi
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His long reign helped the Manchus to consolidate their hold on China. He was a Confucian scholars who applied Confucian teachings through his policies. He was also a conqueror who, like in earlier Chinese dynasties, sought to forestall problems with nomads by projecting Chinese influence.
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Qianlong
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His reign marked the height of the Qing Dynasty. He was the grandson of Kangxi and was sophisticated and learned like him. Under his rule, the treasury had so much money that tax collections were cancelled on four occasions. Toward the end of his reign, however, he delegated many responsibilities to eunuchs.
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The Son of Heaven
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What the emperor of China starting in the Ming and Qing dynasties was called. Not quite a god, but more than a mere mortal. The human designated by heavenly powers to maintain order on earth.
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Confucianism
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The philosophical system taught throughout China during the Ming and Qing Dynasties. It reinforced the power of the emperor and filial piety and the civil service examinations were based largely on its curriculum.
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Examination system
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a battery of tests administered at the district, provincial, and metropolitan levels. Strict quotas restricted the number of successful candidates. Consisted of “eight-legged essays”. Passing these examinations resulted in a degree and a chance to serve in Chinese government.
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Filial piety
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The devotion of children towards fathers and also subjects towards the emperor. Set the father as the head of the household, with leadership passed to his eldest son.
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Footbinding
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A practice in which women’s feet were bound to make them tinier and more attractive. Basically crippled the women, leaving them even more dependent on and subservient to men.
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Zheng He
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A eunuch admiral who led Chinese fleets into the Indian Ocean Basin to establish Chinese presence there by the orders of Emperor Yongle of the Ming dynasty.
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Zhu Xi
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was a Song dynasty scholar, most prominent architect of Neo-Confucianism. Combined moral, ethical, and political values of Confucius with the logical rigor and speculative power of Buddhist philosophy.
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Collection of Books
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Kangxi’s Collection of Books was smaller than the Yongle Encyclopedia, but it was more influential because the emperor had it printed and distributed, whereas Yongle’s compilation was available only in three manuscript copies.
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The Romance of the Three Kingdoms
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attributed to Luo Guanzhong, is a historical novel set in the turbulent years towards the end of the Han dynasty and the Three Kingdoms period in Chinese history, starting in 169 and ending with the reunification of the land in 280.
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Jesuits
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member of the Society of Jesus (S.J.), a Roman Catholic order of religious men founded by St. Ignatius of Loyola, noted for its educational, missionary, and charitable works, once regarded by many as the principal agent of the Counter-Reformation, and later a leading force in modernizing the church. They made China known in Europe
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Tokugawa Leyasu
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Established a military government “tent government” (bakufu).Last shogunate in Japanese history (1600-1867); founded by him. Notable for unifying Japan
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Daimyo
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Powerful territorial lords in early modern Japan; “great names”, ruled most of Japan from their vast, hereditary landholdings
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Bakufu
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was the military government of Japan between 1192 and 1868, headed by the shogun.
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Shogun
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Japanese military leader who ruled in the place of the emperor
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Bushido
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“the way of the warrior”, originates from the samurai moral values, most commonly stressing some combination of frugality, loyalty, martial arts mastery, and honor unto death
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Neo-Confucianism
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The shoguns patronized scholars who advocated neo-Confucianism views, which figured prominently in the educational curriculum. All those who had a formal education–including officials- received constant exposure to neo-Confucianism values. By early 18th century, neo-Confucianism had become the official ideology of the Tokugawa bakufu.
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Floating worlds
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The centers of the urban culture were ukiyo, entertainment and pleasure quarters where teahouses theaters, brothels, and public baths offered escape from social responsibilities and rigid rules of conduct that governed public behavior in Tokugawa society
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The life of the man who lived for love
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written by Ihara Saikaku. This was written about a townsman who devoted his life, beginning at a tender age of eight, to a quest for sexual pleasure.
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Ihara Saikaku
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one of Japan’s most prolific poets who helped create a new genre of prose literature, the “books of the floating world”, which revolved around the theme of love
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Fabian Fucan
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a Christian who later converted to Japanese Zen Buddhism and wrote tacts comparing Christianity to other religions of Japan
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American Food Crops
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Spanish merchants coming to the Philippines introduced American food crops to China which were cultivated in soil that would have otherwise not been used; the new crops drastically increased the food supply in China which encouraged a huge population growth
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Mean People
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the lowest class on the social hierarchy including slaves, indentured servants, entertainers, prostitutes, and other marginal groups
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Pulp Fiction
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popular fiction novels which were looked down upon by Confucian scholars because of crude content; printed on cheap paper in order to produce quickly
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Dutch Learning
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in order to keep Christianity out, Tokugawa shut off almost all communication with the world except for the Dutch; few learned Dutch in order to communicate and get information about the outside world along with new technological findings
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Taj Mahal
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ordered by Shah Jahan as a tomb for his wife, Mumtaz Mahal, who died in childbirth; the structure represents the day when Allah would cause the dead to rise and undergo judgement while the gardens represent the gardens of paradise with four water channels like the four rivers of the heavenly kingdom; one of the most prominent of all Islamic edifices
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Shah Jahan
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emperor of Mughal India who ordered the Taj Mahal to be built; went crazy and son disposed of him; obsessed with his wife; had many luxuries while he was emperor like the Peacock throne
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Ottoman empire
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located in Anatolia by seminomadic Turks who migrated there in the 1200s; expanded by capturing big areas like Bursa and Gallipoli; unusually successful frontier state which lasted almost 700 years
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Osman
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chief of the seminomadics who migrated to Anatolia in order to become Muslim religious warriors; essentially began the early Ottoman Empire
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Ghazi
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term for Muslim religious warriors
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Mehmed II
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known as Mehmed the Conqueror because he conquered Constantinople in 1453 and created a new dynamic for Ottoman expansion; it became to Ottoman capital where he laid down foundations for a tightly centralized monarchy; he continued to conquer and even captured the pope until his successors abandoned his plans for expansion
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Devshirme
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Christian-Balkan young boys that became slaves to the Ottoman sultans, formed the Janissaries
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Suleyman the magnificent
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(reigned 1520-1566) during his reign Ottoman imperialism climaxed, in 1534 he conquered Baghdad, under him the Ottomans became a major naval power
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The Safavid Empire
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Empire created by Shah Ismail, traced their ancestry back to Sufi-al-Din, had a Sufi religious order
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Twelver Shiism
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there were 12 infallible imams (religious leaders) after Muhammad and the 12th imam was in hiding to escape persecution and would return one day to take back his power
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Shah Ismail
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created the Safavid Empire, laid claim to the ancient Persian imperial title of shah, proclaimed that the official religion of the region would be Twelver Shiism
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Safi al-din
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(1252-1334) Safavids traced their ancestry back to him
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qizilbash
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Turkish followers “red heads” supported Shah Ismail’s conversion to Twelver Shiism
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Battle of Chaldirian
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(1514) battle between Ottomans and Safavids, Safavids didn’t use gunpowder technology because it wasn’t manly, Ottomans destroyed Safavid capital, Tabriz
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Shah Abbas the Great
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(reigned 1588-1629) fully revitalized the Safavid Empire, moved the capital, encouraged trade, strengthened military forces, went on military campaigns
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Babur
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“the Tiger” 1523 appeared in Northern India, dad was the Prince of Farghana, invaded India in 1523 & 1525, took Delhi in 1526
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Akbar
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(reigned 1556-1605) Babar’s grandson, created centralized administrative structure, had military campaigns, interested in religion & philosophy, encouraged “divine faith” on his subjects
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Divine Faith
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created by Akbar, Islamic + incorporated different religious traditions + focused attention on the emperor as the ruler of religious, ethnic, & social groups
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Mughal Empire
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Comes from Persian term meaning Mongol Ruled most of India from 16th to 19th century Origin founded by the successorts of Tamerlane and Chinggis Khan (Zahir al Muhammad aka Babur)
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Aurangzeb
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1659-1707 Expanded boundaries Generated religious tensions between Hindus and Muslims Demolished several Hindu temples (replaced by mosque) Imposed a tax on Hindus (encourage conversion to Islam)
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Role of Women
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Managed Islamic empires Enjoyed special privileges/authority
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Mahd-e Olya
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The wife of a shah in Safavid Persia who was the de facto ruler. She tried to limit the power of the qizilbash so they murdered her.
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Mumtaz Mahal
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The wife of the Mughal ruler, Shah Jahan. He had an exquisite white marble mosque and tomb built for her, and was deposed by his son Aurganzeb before he could build one for himself.
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Millet
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autonomous religious communities that retained their civil laws, traditions, and languages. They usually also assumed social and administrative functions in matters concerning birth, marriage, death, health, and education.
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Jizya
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The special tax that people of faiths other than Islam paid
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Dhimmi
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“Protected people”. The Islamic empires did not make people convert to Islam but extended to them this status. This allowed the communites to retain their freedom, keep their property, practice their religion, and handle their own legal affairs.
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Istanbul
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The capital city that the Ottomans were most proud of. It had the Topkapi palce, which house government offices. Sultan Suleyman called on the talents of Sinan Pasha to build a religious complex here called the Suleymaniye, which blended Islamic and Byzantine architecture.
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Isfahan
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The capital made by Shah Abbas. He concentrated markets, the palace, and the royal mosque around a vast polo field and public square. The palaces were relatively small, emphasized natural settings, and were more open than Topkapi.
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Fatehpur Sikri
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a city planned and constructed by Akbar as his capital and in commemoration of his conquest of Gujarat. It was a private residence for the rulers, but also a display of Mughal piety and devotion.
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Piri Reis
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An Ottoman admiral and cartographer who produced maps and the Book of Seafaring.
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Printing Press
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Introduced to Anatolia by Jewish refugees from Spain. Ottoman authorities allowed them in major cities, but they could not print texts in Turkish or Arabic until 1729. Many preferred elegant, hand written texts, and eventually conservative Muslims forced its closure in 1742.

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