AP World History chapter 14 vocab

Flashcard maker : Ken Ericksen
Akbar
The most famous emperor of India’s Mughal Empire (r. 1556-1605); his policies are noted for their efforts at religious tolerance and inclusion
Aurangzeb
Mughal emperor (r. 1658-1707) who reversed his predecessor’s policies of religious tolerance and attempted to impose Islamic supremacy
Columbian exchange
The massive transatlantic interaction exchange between the Americas and Afro-Eurasia that began in the period of European exploration and colonization
conquistadores
Spanish conquerors of the Native American lands, most notably the Aztec and Inca empires
Constantinople, 1453
Constantinople, the capital and almost the only outpost left of the Byzantine Empire, fell to the army of the Ottoman invaders in 1453, an event that marked the end of Christian Byzantium
creoles
Spaniards born in the Americas
devshirme
The tribute of boy children that the Ottoman Turks levied from their Christian subjects in the Balkans; the Ottomans raised the boys for service in the civil administration or in the elite Janissary infantry corps.
fixed winds
The prevailing winds of the Atlantic, which blow steadily in the same direction; an understanding of these winds made European exploration and colonization of the Americas possible
the \”great dying\”
Term used to describe the devastating demographic impact of European-borne epidemic diseases on the Americas
jizya
Special tax levied on non-Muslims in Islamic states; the Mughal Empire was notable for abolishing the jizya for a time
mercantilism
An economic theory that argues that governments best serve their states’ economic interests by encouraging exports and accumulating bullion
mestizo
Lierally \”mixed\”, a term used to describe the mixed-race population of Spanish colonial societies in the Americas
Mughal Empire
One of the most successful empires of India, a state founded by Muslim Turks who invaded India in 1526; their rule was noted for efforts to create partnerships between Hindus and Muslims
mulattoes
Term commonly used for people of mixed African and European blood
Ottoman Empire
Major Islamic state centered on Anatolia that came to include the Balkans, the Near East, and much of North Africa
peninsulares
In the Spanish colonies of Latin America, the term used to refer to people who had been born in Spain; they claimed superiority over Spaniards born in the Americas
plantation complex
Agricultural system based on African slavery that was used in Brazil, the Caribbean, and southern colonies of North America
Qing dynasty
Ruling dynasty of China from 1644 to 1912; the Qing rulers were originally from Manchuria, which had conquered China
settler colonies
Colonies in which the colonizing people settled in large numbers, rather then simply sending relatively small numbers to exploit the region; particularly noteworthy in the case of the British colonies in North America
Siberia
Russia’s great frontier region, a vast territory of what is now central and eastern Russia, most of it unsuited to agriculture but rich in mineral resources and fur-bearing animals
yasak
Tribute that Russian rulers demanded from the native peoples of Siberia, most often in the form of furs
Zunghars
Western Mongol group that created a substantial state (1671-1760); the Zunghar threat provoked Qing expansion into Central Asia

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