AP World History Chapter 11: Rome

Flashcard maker : Mike Bryan
Rome
– extensive land empire with centralized administration
– Established links between various Mediterranean regions
– Served as a vehicle for the spread of Christianity
Etruscans
– 8th – 5th century BCE
– From Anatolia
– Cities, manufacturing, metallurgy
– Trade, fleet
– Tremendous influence on Romans
509 BCE: Republic
– Two consuls, assembly, senate
– Conflict/tension between plebians and patricians
– Led to creation of tribunes and expansion of plebian role in gov’t.
– Position of dictator: 6 months
External challenges
– within Italy and with Gauls
Carthage
– Located in Africa
– Punic Wars 264 – 146 BCE
– Economic competition (especially over Sicily)
– Supremacy in the Mediterranean
Problems
– Unequal distribution of wealth: Latifundia
– Strain from administering conquered lands
– Social conflict and civil war
– Gracci brothers
– Republic unfit for large and growing empire
– Power struggles
– Personal armies: poor soldiers loyal to general and not the state
Gracchi brothers (Marius and Sulla)
– land reform
– Marius was a reformer
– Sulla was a conservative and a brutal dictator
– Civil war/ \”Reign of terror\” lasted 5 years
– More small farmers in cities
– By this point, Rome is dead
Julius Caesar
– Nephew to Marius
– Social Reform
– Popular support
– 49 BCE: marches army towards Rome
– Dictator for life; never took the title of emperor
– Centralized authority
– Confiscated and redistributed property
– Extended Roman citizenship
– Assassination and power struggle
Octavian
– 27 BCE
– Monarchy disguised as a republic
– Centralized political power
– Preserved traditional Republican offices and gov’t
– Organized military allegiance to himself
Largest extent of Roman empire
– 117 CE
Pax Romana
– Facilitated transportation and communication
Roman Law
– Twelve tables 450 BCE
– Applied to all people under Roman rule
– Innocent until proven guilty
– Right of descendants to challenge accusers
– Judges could set aside laws
Trade
– Good roads and Pax Romana
– Existing cities benefited
– New cities founded in conquered areas
– Agricultural production for export
– Commercial agriculture: regional specialization
– Mediteranean: \”Roman Lake\”
– Wealth generated from military expansion
Innovations
– Concrete
– Luxury goods
– Elaborate sewage and plumbing systems
Paterfamilias
– Authorities
Women
– Status, property, authority
New wealthy:
– Challenged old nobility
Poverty:
– Urban unemployed masses
– Riots, private armies
– \”Bread and Circuses\”
Slaves
– Rural: harsh lives; rebellions
– Urban: less difficult; more possibility for freedom
Early Rome
– gods and goddesses
– some adapted from Greeks and Etruscans
– Divinations of future
Stoicism
– popular with Romans (Cicero)
– Universal moral standards based on nature and reason
– Pursuit of justice
Salvation religions
– Mithraism and Christianity were the most popular
– Appealed to the masses
– Promised a future
– Provided a sense of purpose
Mithraism
– Sun and light god of Zoroastrianism
– Romans associated it with military values
– Popular among soldiers, merchants, and administrators
– ONLY MEN
Judaism
– Problem with state cults
– Tense relations with Romans: rebellions
– Jewish War (66 – 70 CE)
Essenes
– Dead Sea scrolls
– Strict Moral Code
– Ritual: Baptism and community meals
– Looked for Savior
Middle of 1st Century CE
– Sought converts from non-Jewish communities
– Paul of Tarsus
3rd Century
– Rome appears as the principle seat of Christianity
– Gradual adoption of authoritative text

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