AP World History Ch. 7, 8, and 9

Flashcard maker : Roy Johnson
Ashoka
third ruler of the Mauryan Empire in India. He converted to Buddhism and broadcast his precepts on inscribed stones and pillars, the earliest surviving Indian writing.
Bantu
collective name of a large group of sub- Saharan African languages and of the peoples speaking these languages.
Faxian
Chinese pilgrim who left a written account of his travels from one Buddhist site to another across Afghanistan and India. Faxian finally reached China on another ship.
Khoisan
sub- Saharan speaking people. Significance is that they are non-bantu. Click as they speak.
Mani
the Iranian prophet who founded Manichaeism, a gnostic religion of Late Antiquity, which was once widespread but is now extinct.
Mbuti
pygmies who lived in the Congo. non-bantu.
Parthians
Iranian ruling dynasty between ca. 250 BCE and 226 CE.
Scythians
an Iranian nomadic people living in Scythia.
Tuareg
sub- Saharan people that spread camels, and they are bantu.
Aksum
at this place, the 70-foot stele is the tallest remnant of a fielf of stelae, or standing stones, marking the tombs of Aksumite kings. The carvings of doors, windows, and beam ends imitate common features of Sksumite architecture, suggesting that each stele symbolized a multistory royal palace. The largest stelae dates from the fourth century CE.
Armenia
one of the earliest Christian kingdoms, in eastern Anatolia and the western Caucasus and occupied by speakers of the Armenian language.
Ethiopia
Christian kingdom in the highlands of eastern Africa. East African high-land nation lying East of the Nile River.
Ghana
first known kingdom in sub-Saharan West Africa between the sixth and thirteenth centuries CE. Ghana also is the modern West African country once known as the Gold Coast.
Manichaeism
religion started by Mani that highlights the struggle between good vs. evil.
Sahel
belt south of the Sahara; literally \”coastland\” in Arabic.
Samarkand
city that is most famous for its central location on the Silk Road between China and the West, and for being an Islamic center of study.
Savanna
tropical or subtropical grassland, either treeless or with occasional clumps of trees. Most extensive in Sub-Saharan Africa but also present in South America.
Indian Ocean Maritime System
linked the lands bordering the Indian Ocean basin and the South China Sea. Trade took place in three distinct regions: the South China Sea, dominated by Chinese and Malays, Southeast Asia to the east coast of India, dominated by Malays and Indians, and the west coast of India to the Persian Gulf and East Africa, dominated by Persians and Arabs
Sasanid Empire
: Iranian empire, established in ca. 244, with a capital in Ctesiphon, Mesopotamia. The Sasanid emperors established Zoroastrianism as the state religion. Islamic Arab armies overthrew the empire ca. 651
Silk Road
caravan routes connecting China and the Middle East across Central Asia and Iran.
sub- Saharan Africa
portion of the African continent lying south of the Sahara.
trans- Saharan caravan routes
trading network linking North Africa with Sub-Saharan Africa across the Sahara.
Stele
at Aksum, the 70-foot stone is the tallest remnant of a fielf of stelae, or standing stones, marking the tombs of Aksumite kings. The carvings of doors, windows, and beam ends imitate common features of Sksumite architecture, suggesting that each stele symbolized a multistory royal palace. The largest stelae date from the fourth century CE.
Steppes
treeless plains, especially the high, flat expanses of northern Eurais, which usually have little rain and are covered with coarse grass. They are good lands for nomads and their herds. Living on the steppes promoted the breeding of horses and the development of military skills tha were essential to the rise of the Mongol Empire.
Stirrup
Device for securing a horseman’s feet, enabling him to wield weapons more effectively. First evidence of the use of stirrups was among the Kushan people of northern Afghanistan in approximately the first century CE.
Abu Bakr
Muhammad’s father- and- law and successor.
Mamluks
under the Islamic system of military slavery, Turkic military slaves who formed an important part of the armed forces of the Abbasid Caliphate of the ninth and tenth centuries. Mamluks eventually
founded their own state, ruling Egypt and Syria (1250-1517). Turkic slave-warriors who ruled Egypt and defeated the Mongols to prevent their entry into northern Africa.
Muhammad
Arab prophet; founder of religion of Islam
Caliphate
office established in succession to Muhammad to rule entire Islamic Empire; also the name of that empire.
Ghana
first known kingdom in sub-Saharan West Africa between the sixth and thirteenth centuries CE. Ghana also is the modern West African country once known as the Gold Coast.
Abbasid Caliphate
descendants of the Prophets Muhammad’s un le, al-Abbas, the Abbasids overthrew the Umayyad Caliphate and ruled an Islamic empire from their capital in Baghdad from 750 to 1258. Abbasid decline led to fragmentation of the caliphate into independent states, but the Islamic umma remained intact.
crusades
armed pilgrimages to the Holy Land by Christians determined to recover Jerusalem from Muslim rule. The Crusades brought an end to western Europe’s centuries of intellectual and cultural isolation. There where six crusades. Without the rivalry between the popes and kings, and without the desire of the church to demonstrate political authority over western Christendom, the Crusades might never have occurred.
Five Pillars of Islam
1. Only one God and Muhammad is his messenger. 2. Prayer 5 times a day facing Mecca. 3. Fast during month of Ramadan. 4. Pay alms. 5. Make pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in one’s lifetime.
Hadith
a traditions relation the words of deeds of the Prophet Muhammad; next to the Quran, the most important basis for Islamic law.
Ka’ba
a cubical shrine with idols. The holiest place in Islam, a large cuboid-shaped building inside the al-Masjid al-Haram mosque in Mecca
Mecca
city in western Arabia; birthplace of the prophet Muhammad and ritual center of the Islamic region; As the birthplace of Muhammad and a site of the composition of the Quran, Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it is required for all able Muslims
Medina
city in Western Arabia to which the prophet Muhammad and his followers emigrated in 622 to escape persecution in Mecca.
Muslim
an adherent of the Islamic religion; a person who \”submits\” to the will of God. Abraham was the first of these and built the Ka’ba.
Quran
the most important basis for Islamic law
Shi’ites
Muslims belonging to the branch of Islam believing that God vests leadership of the community in a descendant of Muhammad’s son-and-law Ali; state religion of Iran.
Sufi
Islamic mystics; spread Islam to many Afro-Asian regions. (Missionaries)
Shari’a
the foundation of Islamic civilization and is derived from the Quran and hadith.
Umayyad Caliphate
Umayyad caliphs presided over Arab realm. They ruled an ethnic empire; governed from Damascus using Sasanid and Byzantine administrative methods.
-Shi’ites and kharijites overthrew the Umayyad caliphate.
Sultan
Word meaning \”victorious\”; came to designate Muslim rulers.
Sunnis
Muslims belonging to the branch of Islam believing that the community should select its own leadership. Majority religion in most Islamic countries.
Ulama
Muslim religious scholars. From the ninth century onward, the primary interpreters of Islamic law and the social core of Muslim urban societies.
Islamic religious scholars; pressed for a more conservative and restrictive theology; opposed to non-Islamic thinking.
Umma
the community of all Muslims. A major innovation against the background of seventh-century Arabia, where traditionally kinship rather than faith had determined membership in a community.
Benedict of Nursia
Benedict of Nursia founded the Benedictine Rule, and later the need for greater discipline over monks and nuns led to the founding of Cluny, a center of monastic reform.
Charlemagne
king of the Franks; emperor.
Through a series of military conquests Charlemagne established the Carolingian Empire, which encompassed all of Gaul and parts of Germany and Italy
Charlemagne, though illiterate himself, he sponsored a brief intellectual revival.
Cyrillic
Byzantine missionaries spread their faith and Cyrillic alphabet into eastern Europe. Alphabet named after Saint Cyril who used it to help convert the Slavs to Orthodox Christianity.
fief
in medieval Europe, land granted in return for a sworn oath to provide specified military service.
Horse collar
harnessing method that increased the efficiency of horses by shifting the point of traction from the animal’s neck to the shoulders; its adoption favors the spread of horse drawn plows and vehicles. They first appeared around 800 in a miniature painting, and in the Bayeux Tapestry in 1066. They could haul heavier loads
Byzantine Empire
(500 C.E. – 1453 C.E.) The eastern portion of the Roman Empire which survived beyond the collapse of the Roman Empire with its capital at Constantinople; retained Mediterranean culture, particularly Greek; later lost Palestine, Syria, and Egypt to Islam.
Carolingian Dynasty
The Carolingians created an empire that was later split into three realms, the Carolingian Empire, which encompassed all of Gaul and parts of Germany and Italy.
Gregory IVV
biggest fight was between Gregory the 7th and Holy Roman Emperor, Henry the 4th. Gregory excommunicates Henry. Henry stands outside where Gregory was staying with beggar clothes in the snow for three days
Thomas a Becket
(Roman Catholic Church) archbishop of Canterbury from 1162 to 1170. gets in a fight with best friend, henry. Henry gets people to murder Thomas
Henry IV
biggest fight was between Gregory the 7th and Holy Roman Emperor, Henry the 4th. Gregory excommunicates Henry. Henry stands outside where Gregory was staying with beggar clothes in the snow for three days
Kievan Rus
Scandinavian adventurers asserting authority over a mostly Slavic farming population. Established Russia.
Urban II
Church wanted to diverge chivalry 1095 Pope Urban the 2nd allowed for knights to kill as long as they weren’t Christian (killing was the penance) he wanted him to conquer Cherusalem
Varangians
Swedish Vikings who pursued rating and trading interests.
Kiev
the cities of Kiev and Novgorod provided the nucleus of Russian principalities. Kievan cities reflected some aspects of Byzantine culture, especially in crafts such as glassmaking.
Manor
in medieval Europe, a large, self-sufficient landholding consisting of the lord’s residence (manor house), outbuildings, peasant village, and surrounding land.
Medieval
literally \”middle age\”, a term that historians of Europe use for the period ca. 500 to ca. 1500, signifying its intermediate point between Greco-Roman antiquity and the Renaissance
papacy
the central administration of the Roman Catholic Church, of which the pope is head
Pilgrimage
journey to a sacred shrine by Chrisitans seeking to show their piety, fulfill vows, or gain absolution for sins. Other religions also have pilgrimage traditions, such as the Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca and the pilgrimages made by early Chinese Buddhists to India in search of sacred Buddhist writings.
Schism
a formal split within a religious community. It split the Orthodox Church from the Catholic Church in the west.
Holy Roman Empire (emperor)
loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor elected by the princes. It lasted from 962 until 1806.
investiture controversy
dispute between the popes and the Holy Roman Emperor over who held ultimate authority over bishops in imperial lands
Christianity in western Europe focused on the pope in Rome, but conflict with the Holy Roman Emperors led to the investiture controversy.
Kievan Russia
The Kievan ruler Vladimir I made Orthodox Christianity the official religion in Kievan Russia, though it penetrated the population slowly.
Power in Kievan Russia depended on trade rather than agriculture. Thus there was no manorial system, and lords ruled from cities
Monasticism
living in a religious community apart form secular soliety an adhering to a rule stipulating chastisty, obedience, and poverty. It was a prominent element of medieval Christianity and Budhism. Monasteries were the primary centers of learning and literacy in medieval Europe. Monasteries provided many charitable services and preserved learned.
serf
in medieval Europe, and agricultural laborer legally bound to a lord’s property and obligated to perform set services for the lord.
simony
selling ecclesiastical appointments, often to people who were not members of the clergy
Vassal
in medieval Europe, a sworn supporter of a king or lord committed to rendering specified military service to that king or lord.

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