AP World Chapter 13

Flashcard maker : Roy Johnson
Aztec Empire
Major state that developed in what is now Mexico in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries; dominated by seminomadic Mexica, who had migrate into the region from northern Mexico.
Benin
Territorial state that emerged by the fifteenth century in the region that is now southern Nigeria; ruled by a warrior king who consolidated his state through widespread conquest.
\”Chosen Women\”
Among the Incas, girls who were removed from their homes at a young age, trained in Inca ideology, and set to producing corn beer and textiles; they later wee given as wives to distinguished men or sent to serve as priestesses.
Christopher Columbus
Genoses mariner commissioned by Spain to search for a new trading route to Asia; in 1492, he found America instead.
Seizure Constaninople (1453)
Constantinople, the capital and almost the only outpost left of the Byzantine Empire, fell to the army of the Ottoman sultan Mehed II \”the Conqueror\” in 1453, an event marked as the end of Christian Byzantium.
\”Firestick Farming\”
A manipulation of their environment by the Paleolithic peoples of Australia that involved controlled burns to clear underbrush.
Fulbe
West Africa’s largest pastoral society, whose members gradually adopted Islam and took on a religious leadership role that lead to the creation of a number of new states.
Vasco da Gamma
Portuguese explorer whose voyage was the first European venture to reach India by circling the tip of South Africa.
Huitzilopochtli (Pronunciation anyone?)
Patron deity of the Aztec empire, associated with the sun.
Hundred Years War
Major conflict between France and England over rival claims to territory in France; the two states’ need to finance the war helped encourage their administrative development.
Igbo
People whose lands were east of the Niger River in what is now southern Nigeria in West Africa; they built a complex society that rejected kingship and centralized statehood and relied on other institutions to provide social coherence.
Inca Empire
The Western Hemisphere’s largest imperial state in the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries; built by a relatively small community of Quechua-speaking people, the empire stretched some 2,500 miles along the Andes Mountains.
Iroquios League of Five Nations
Confederation of five Iroquois peoples in what is now New York State; the loose alliance was based on the Great Law of Peace, and agreement to settle disputes peacefully through a council of clan leaders.
Malacca
Muslim port city that came to prominence on the waterway between Sumatra and Malaya in the fifteenth century C.E.; it was the springboard for the spread of a syncretic form of Islam throughout the region.
Mexica
Seminomadic people of northern Mexico who by 1325 had established themselves on a small island in Lake Texcoco, where they built their capital, Tenochitlán.
Ming Dynasty
Chinese dynasty that succeeded the Yuan dynasty of the Mongols; noted for its return to traditional Chinese ways and restoration of the land after the destructiveness of the Mongols.
Mughal Empire
One of the most successful empires of India, a state founded by an Islamized Turkic group that invaded India in 1526; the Mughals’ rule was noted for their efforts to create partnerships betweem Hindus and Muslims
Nezahualcoyotl
A poet and king of the city-state of Texcoco, which was part of the Aztec Empire.
Ottoman Empire
Major Islamic state centered on Anatolia that came to include the Balkans, the Near East, and much of North Africa.
Paleolithic Persistence
The continuance of gathering and hunting societies in substantial areas of the world despite the millennia of agricultural advance
Pochteca
Professional merchants in the Aztec Empire whose wealth often elevated them to elite status
European Renaissance
A \”rebirth\” of classical learning that is most often associated with the cultural blooming of Italy and that includednot just a rediscovery of Greek learning, but also major developments in art, as well as growing secularism in society.
Safavid Empire
Major Turkic empire of Persia founded in the early sixteenth century, notable for its efforts to convert its populace to Shia Islam.
Songhay Empire
Major Islamic state of West Africa that formed in the second half of the fifteenth century.
Tenochtitlan
The metropolitan capital of the Aztec Empire.
Timur
Great city of West Africa, noted in the fourteenth through sixteenth centuries as a center of Islamic scholarship
Triple Alliance
1428 agreement between Mexica and two other nearby city-states that launched the Aztec Empire
Yongle
Chinese emperor during the Ming dynasty who was a key figure in the restoration of China to greatness and who commissioned an enormous fleet to spread awareness of Chinese superiority to much of Asia and eastern Africa.
Zhenge
Great Chinese admiral who commanded a fleet of more than 300 ships in a series of voyages of contact and exploration that began in 1405.

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