AP World Ch. 17-20

Flashcard maker : Paula Corcoran
Bartolomé de Las Casas
1st bishop of Chiapas, in S. Mexico. Devoted most of his life to protecting Amerindian peoples from exploitation. Major achievement was the New Laws of 1542, which limited the ability of Spanish settlers to compel Amerindians to labor for them.
Marquis of Pombal
the most aggressive period of reform in Brazil occurred under this person (1750-1777). Reforms were financed by the discovery of gold and diamonds in Brazil.
Tupac Amaru II
member of Inca artistocracy who led a rebellion against Spanish authorities in Peru in 1780-1781. He was captured and executed with his wife and other members of his family.
Brazil
in this place, the Catholic Church was the primary agent for the introduction and transmission of Christian belief, European language, and European culture. Sugar plantations dominated its economic development, fueled by African slave labor. The sugar plantations played a role in integrating the economy of the south Atlantic region. It attracted smaller numbers of European immigrants than did Spanish America, and its native populations were smaller and less urbanized. It was more influenced by African culture than by Amerindian culture.
Creoles
in colonial Spanish America, term used to describe someone of European descent born in the New World. Elsewhere in Americas, used to describe all nonnative peoples.
Encomienda
a grant of authority over a population of Amerindians in the Spanish colonies. Provided the grant holder with a supply of cheap labor and periodic payments of goods by the Amerindians. Obliged the grant holder to Christianize the Amerindians.
Hidalgos
lesser nobles who were common in the New World
House of Burgesses
elected assembly in colonial VA, created in 1618
indentured servant
a migrant to British colonies in the Americas who paid for passage by agreeing to work for a set term ranging from 4-7 years
Iroquois Confederacy
an alliance of five northeastern Amerindian peoples (6 after 1722) that made decisions on military and diplomatic issues through a council of representatives. Allied first with the Dutch and later with the English, they dominated the area from western New England to the Great Lakes.
Mestizo
Spanish authorities’ term to describe people of mixed European and Amerindian descent. They were elites in frontier regions.
Mulatto
Term used in Spanish and Portuguese colonies for people of mixed European and African descent. Held an intermediate position in the tropics.
New France
French colony in North America, with a capital in Quebec, founded 1608. Fell to the British in 1763.
Pilgrims
group of English Protestant dissenters who established Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts in 1620 to seek religious freedom after having lived briefly in the Netherlands
Potosi
located in Bolivia, one of the richest silver mining centers and most populous cities in colonial Spanish America
Puritans
English Protestant dissenters who believed that God predestined souls to heaven or hell before birth. Founded Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1629.
Viceroy
the highest-ranking Spanish officials in the colonies who enjoyed broad power but also faced obstacles to their authority in the vast territories they sought to control.
Colonial fur trade
_____ ___ ____ fueled French settlement. Young Frenchmen (called coureurs de bois) sent to live among natives to master their languages and customs. Amerindians actively participated in the trade because they came to depend on the goods they received in exchange. It led to overhunting and increased competition among natives peoples for hunting grounds, thus promoting warfare.
Columbian Exchange
the exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus’s voyages
Council of the Indies
supreme governing body of Spain’s colonies in America (1524-1834). Composed of between 6 and 10 councilors appointed by the king, the council prepared and issued all legislation governing the colonies in the king’s name, approved all important acts and expenditures by colonial officials, and acted as a court of last resort in civil suits appealed from colonial courts.
Philip Quaque
Some African merchants sent their sons to Europe to learn European ways, and this was one of these sons. He was educated in England, ordained as a priest in the Church of England, and became the official chaplain of the Cape Coast Castle.
Bight of Biafra
In the 18th century, the slave trade expanded eastward to this place, which contained no large states. Inlands markets evolved into giant fairs with different sections specializing in slaves and imported goods.
Dahomey
a kingdom in Africa that was strengthened militarily by firearms acquired in the slave trade. Annexed Whydah in 1727. Very dependent on Atlantic trade. Overrun by the Oyo kingdom in 1730, and forced to pay an annual tribute to the Oyo.
Dutch West India Company
trading company chartered by the Dutch government to conduct its merchants’ trade in Africa and the Americas
Hausa
an agricultural and trading people of central Sudan in West Africa. Aside from their brief incorporation into the Songhai Empire, these city-states remained autonomous until the Sokoto Caliphate conquered them in the early 19th century.
Maroon
a slave who ran away from his/her master. Often a member of a community of runaway slaves in the West Indies and South America.
Royal African Company
a trading company chartered by English government in 1672 to conduct its merchants’ trade on Atlantic coast of Africa.
Songhai
a people, language, kingdom, and empire in west Sudan in West Africa. At its height in the 16th century, this Muslim empire stretched from the Atlantic to the land of the Hausa and was a major player in the trans-Saharan trade.
African Slavery
The expansion of sugar plantations in the West Indies required a sharp increase in the volume of _____ ____. Many died on ships to the plantations, and those who made it to the plantations had very short life expectancies because of the harsh labor and poor diet and treatment.
Atlantic Circuit
network of trade routes connecting Europe, Africa, and the Americas that underlay the Atlantic system.
Atlantic economy
In 16th century, Spanish treasure fleets dominated Atlantic trade, but in the late 17th and 18th centuries, sugar ships returning to Europe from the West Indies and Brazil and slave ships dominated it. Survival of this depended on private enterprise, which made trade more efficient and profitable. The growth of this was 1 part of the development of modern capitalism. Governments also used military force to gain trade advantages.
Capitalism
the economic system of large financial institutions – banks, stock exchanges, investment companies – that first developed in early modern Europe. Two kinds: commercial (trading system of the early modern economy) and industrial (based on machine production).
chartered companies
groups of private investors who paid an annual fee to France and England in exchange for a monopoly over trade to the West Indies colonies
Islamic Slave trade
Most African slaves in the ____ ____ ___ were soldiers and servants. Most were women who served as concubines, servants, and entertainers. Muslims saw no moral impediment to owning/trading in slaves.
Mercantilism
European government policies of the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries designed to promote oversea trade between a country and its colonies and accumulate precious metals by requiring colonies to trade only with their motherland country. British system defined by the Navigation Acts, French system by laws known was the Exclusif.
Middle Passage
the part of the Atlantic Circuit involving transportation of enslaved Africans across the Atlantic to the Americas.
Plantocracy
in the West Indian colonies, the rich men who owned most of the slaves and most of the land, especially in the 18th century
Sugar production
had both an agricultural and industrial character. Simple tools like spades, hoes, and machetes were required in growing and harvesting. Once it was cut, it went to the mills to be crushed and have the juice extracted. Then, excess water was boiled off, leaving thick syrup. Then it turned into crystallized sugar as it dried in conical clay molds. Large producers had lower costs and greater profits then small producers over time.
Akbar I
most illustrious sultan of the Mughal Empire in India (r. 1556-1605). Expanded the empire and pursued a policy of conciliation with Hindus.
Aurangzeb
Akbar’s zealous great-grandson who reinstituted many restrictions on Hindus
Babur
founder of the Mughal Empire, a Muslim descendant of both Timur and Genghis Khan. Defeated the last Muslim sultan of Delhi. Grandfather of Akbar.
Selim I the Grim
Suleiman the Magnificent’s father who conquered Egypt and Syria, making the Red Sea the Ottomans’ southern frontier. Defeated the Mamluk sultanate in the early 16th century.
Shah Abbas I
the 5th and most renowned ruler of the Safavid dynasty in Iran (r. 1587-1629). He moved the royal capital to Isfahan in 1598.
Suleiman the Magnificent
the most illustrious sultan of the Ottoman Empire (r. 1520-1566), also known and Kanuni, \”the Lawgiver\”. Significantly expanded the empire in the Balkans and eastern Mediterranean.
Batavia
fort established ca. 1619 as headquarters of Dutch East India Co. operations in Indonesia; today the city of Jakarta.
Caucasus
mountainous region between the Black and Caspian Seas that marks the traditional dividing line between Europe and Asia. Bisected by the mountain range that shares its name.
Devshirme
system that imposed a regular levy of male children on Christian villages. These kids were placed with Turkish families. The system produced the Janissary soldiers and senior military commanders and heads of government departments.
Grand Viziers
chief administrators of the Ottoman Empire. The governmental affairs were overseen by these rather than the actual sultan.
Janissaries
infantry, originally of slave origin, armed with firearms and constituting the elite of the Ottoman army from the 15th century until the corps was abolished in 1826.
Oman
Arab state based in Musqat, the main port in the SE region of the Arabian peninsula. Succeeded Portugal as a power in the W Indian Ocean in the 18th century.
Rajputs
members of a mainly Hindu warrior caste from NW India. Mughal emperors drew most of their Hindu officials from this caste, and Akbar married a princess from this caste.
Swahili
Bantu language with Arabic loanwords spoken in coastal regions of E Africa.
Acheh Sultanate
Muslim kingdom in N Sumatra. Main center of Islamic expansion in SE Asia in the early 17th century, it declined after the Dutch seized Malacca from Portugal in 1641.
Mughal Empire
Muslim state (1526-1857) exercising dominion over most of India in the 16th and 17th centuries.
Safavid Empire
Iranian kingdom (1502-1722) established by Ismail Safavi, who declared Iran a Shi’ite state.
Sikhism
Indian religion based on a supreme God who governs with justice and grace. Every human being has the opportunity to become 1 with God.
Tulip Period
(1718-1730) Last years of the reign of Ottoman sultan Ahmed III, during which European styles and attitudes became briefly popular in Istanbul.
Kangxi
Qing emperor (r. 1662-1722). Oversaw the greatest expansion of the Qing Empire.
Li Zicheng
an apprentice ironworker who was thrown out of his job and found work as soldier. Mutinied with his fellow soldiers when the government failed to provide needed supplies, heading several thousand Chinese rebels. His forces took Beijing without a fight, but it was retaken by Wu Sangui and the Manchus.
Lord George Macartney
a well-connected peer of the British government with practical experience in Russia and India who was dispatched to China for the mission bearing his name , which was an attempt to establish diplomatic relations with the Qing Empire. However, he refused to perform the kowtow.
Matteo Ricci
an outstanding Jesuit of late Ming China who became expert in the Chinese language and an accomplished scholar of the Confucian classics. Under his leadership, the Jesuits adapted Catholicism to Chinese cultural traditions. He resided in Beijing on an imperial stipend as a Western scholar.
Mikhail Romanov
inaugurated a dynasty that would soon consolidate its own authority while successfully competing with neighboring powers. Represented conflicts between Slavic Russians and Turkic steppe peoples as being between Christians and \”infidels\” or between the civilized and the \”barbaric\”. The greatest in his line was Peter the Great.
Peter the Great
Russian tsar (r. 1689-1725). Enthusiastically introduced Western languages and technologies to the Russian elite, moving the capital from Moscow to the new city of St. Petersburg.
Tokugawa Ieyasu
after the demise of Hideyoshi, he asserted his domination over other daimyo and established a new military government, the Tokugawa Shogunate
Toyotomi Hideyoshi
the warlord who emerged from the prolonged civil war in the late 1500s in Japan. Invaded the Asian mainland with 160,000 men. Against his invaders, he used \”turtle boats\”. He was mentally unstable and used brutal punitive measures as his armies advanced through the Korean peninsula and into Manchuria.
Amur River
this river valley was a contested frontier between N China and E Russia until the settlement arranged in the Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689).
Boyars
the Russian aristocracy who allowed Mikhail Romanov to inaugurate a dynasty
Cossacks
peoples of the Russian Empire who lived outside the farming villages, often as herders, mercenaries, or outlaws. They led the conquest of Siberia in the 16th and 17th centuries.
Daimyo
literally, great name(s). Japanese warlords and great landowners, whose armed samurai gave them control of the Japanese islands from the 8th to the later 19th century. Under the Tokugawa Shogunate, they were subordinated to the imperial government.
Edo (Tokyo)
new administrative capital created by the Tokugawa Shogunate. Trade along the well-maintained road between this city and Kyoto promoted the development of the Japanese economy and the formation of other trading centers. By the late 17th century, it was one of the largest cities in the world.
Kowtow
a ritual in which the visitor knocked his head on the floor while crawling toward the throne. The Dutch East India Co. gained China’s favor by being willing to do this ritual. However, Macartney refused.
Macao
in 1557, the Portuguese gained the right to trade from a base here, on the southern coast.
Manchu
federation of NE Asian peoples who founded Qing Empire
Mitsui
one of the most important industrial and financial enterprises in Japan that had its origins in the sake breweries of the early Tokugawa period and then branched out into manufacturing, finance, and transport.
Muscovy
Russian principality that emerged gradually during the era of Mongol domination. This dynasty ruled without interruption from 1276-1598.
Nagasaki
One daimyo gave Jesuit missionaries this port city. A few Dutch were permitted to reside on a small artificial island in its harbor, and a few Japanese were licensed to supply their needs.
Samurai
literally \”those who serve\”, the hereditary military elite of the Tokugawa Shogunate.
Siberia
the extreme NE sector of Asia, including the Kamchatka Peninsula and the present Russian coast of the Arctic Ocean, Bering Strait, and Sea of Okhotsk.
Tsar (Czar)
from Latin Caesar, this Russian title for a monarch was 1st used in the 16th century.
Ural Mountains
this north-south range separates Siberia from the rest of Russia. It is commonly considered the boundary between the continents of Europe and Asia.
Macartney mission
the unsuccessful attempt by the British Empire to establish diplomatic relations with the Qing Empire
Qing Empire
empire established in China by Manchus who overthrew the Ming Empire in 1644. At various times, they also controlled Manchuria, Mongolia, Turkestan, and Tibet. Last emperor of the empire was overthrown in 1911.
Tokugawa Shogunate
the last of the 3 shogunates of Japan. Had new administrative capital at Edo. Gave Japan more political unity than the islands had seen in centuries, but the regionally based daimyo retained a great deal of power and autonomy.

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