AP US History – Chapter 24

question

What characteristic did the fascist governments in the 1930s and 1940s, especially Nazi Germany, appeal to?
answer

racial superiority
question

Which of the following factors contributed to the rise of the Nazi Party in Germany?
answer

World War I reparation payments, economic depression, and high unemployment.
question

Which of the following was the United States’ initial response to world problems in the 1930s?
answer

neutrality
question

In 1934, the Nye Committee’s report concluded what about the true cause of WWI?
answer

War profiteers had maneuvered the nation into WWI for financial gain.
question

The Neutrality Act of 1935 and its 1936 and 1937 amendments made buys do what?
answer

“cash-and-carry”
question

World War II officially began in Europe after Germany invaded what country?
answer

Poland
question

Describe the America First Committee.
answer

Leading isolationist group advocating that America focus’s on continental defense and non-involvement with the European war.
question

What were Franklin Roosevelt’s “four essential freedoms”?
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Of speech, of worship, from want, and from fear
question

The principles of freedom of the seas, national self-determination, and collective security were reiterated in the…?
answer

Atlantic Charter
question

After the Japanese invaded China in 1937, President Roosevelt urged what from “peace loving nations”?
answer

To quarantine Japan and other agressors
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What was the U.S. reaction when Japanese troops occupied the northern part of French Indochina in 1940?
answer

Restricted trade with Japan including fuel and scrap metal vital to Japan’s war effort.
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What did President Roosevelt call “a date that will live in infamy”?
answer

Pearl Harbor
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What was the main factor in determining the outcome of World War II for America?
answer

The immense production of war material and needed supplies
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What were the terms of the “cost-plus” contracts offered by the U.S. government to corporations during WWII?
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agreement to pay a company whatever the manufacturing cost plus a guaranteed percentage of the costs as a profit
question

Who was Henry J. Kaiser?
answer

The “miracle man” for revolutionizing the production of naval vessels during the war
question

Which of the following describes discrimination in the armed services during World War II?
answer

The military segregated African Americans and assigned them menial duties
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The federal government enacted what policies during WWII to encourage women workers in the war effort?
answer

Government child-care programs
question

The GI Bill of Rights provided…?
answer

education, pensions, medicare, and loans
question

What was the outcome of the United Mine Workers’ strike, which was led by John L. Lewis in 1943?
answer

Precipitated the antistrike laws
question

How did most Americans deal with rationing during World War II?
answer

most complied
question

In June 1943, thirty-four people died during a major race riot in
answer

Detroit
question

Describe the forced relocation and incarceration of Japanese Americans during World War II?
answer

More than 2/3 of the Japanese Americans were native born American citizens.
question

During World War II, the Big Three consisted of…?
answer

England, Soviet Union, and the U.S.
question

From 1941 to 1943, Stalin was most interested in securing a guarantee that Britain and the U.S. would…?
answer

Open a second front in France to force Germany to withdraw troops from Russia.
question

The turning point of World War II in Europe came as a result of…?
answer

Soviets halted German advance at Stalingrad in the winter of 1942
question

Why was Churchill’s strategy of invading Europe through its “soft underbelly” in Sicily and Italy a costly mistake?
answer

Churchill thought he could keep casualties down by attacking Germany through the “soft underbelly” of Italy rather than a cross-channel invasion through France. Britain lost millions of men in World War II so the move was more difficult.
question

What was the principal reason that Harry Truman and his American advisers decided to use the atomic bomb against Japan in the summer of 1945?
answer

To avoid an invasion of Japan because it would be extremely costly. They released the bomb hoping it would be enough to force Japan to surrender.
question

Why did the United States wait until 1941, after nearly every European nation had fallen to Germany, to enter World War II? What were the sources of American political isolation?
answer

The U.S. was pursuing a national policy of “isolationism” to avoid involvement in war, and to focus on domestic/family household issues (anti-immigration, consolidate influence in the Western Hemisphere, restore economy). The U.S. generally tried to avoid political and military conflicts abroad.
question

Why do historians consider 1942 to be a pivotal year for the outcome of the war?
answer

Battle of Coral Sea (victory guaranteed Australia would remain free of Japanese control), Battle of Midway Islands (cost Japan naval control of the Pacific), Island hopping, Stalingrad (Russian forces turned back Hitler’s advance into the Soviet Union, German armies retreated with Russian forces in pursuit from the East), Failure of “soft underbelly” in Europe (helped them succeed in Italy and France invasions), Manhattan Project.
question

What roles did minority group members play in the conduct of World War II?
answer

African Americans joined the military to escape depression and tenant farming in the South and Midwest. However, they were still facing discrimination and segregation. White and black soldiers were kept apart.

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