AP Psychology- Unit 8 Study Guide

Instinct Theory
a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned. – fail to explain human motives

Drive Reduction Theory
the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need. – homeostasis- maintaining a balanced or constant internal state. (satisfy needs)

Incentive Theory
a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior – what we find attractive or threatening

Arousal Theory
some motivated behaviors actually increase arousal – “infovores”: brain mechanisms that reward us for acquiring information

Hierarchy of Needs
self actualization – a pyramid of our human needs/survival
(Maslow’s pyramid of human needs)

maintaining a balanced or constant internal state

Hierarchy of needs tiers
physiological needs: food/water
safety needs: shelter/heat
belonging needs: love, support, friendship
esteem needs: acceptance
self-actualization needs: realizing potential

Lateral hypothalamus
Activity along the side of the hypothalamus brings on hunger
(damaged= starvation occurs, staves to death)

Ventromedial Hypothalamus
Depresses hunger
(damaged= eating constantly)

Responsible for the long term regulation of hunger
(fat creates leptin)-(provides hypothalamus with information about fate stores)

secreted by empty stomach; sends “I’m hungry” signal to brain

Why do we tend to consume carbohydrates when we are upset?
Boosts levels of serotonin and calms us

Units Bias
Food portions
– ex: buffet. lots of options= wanting to eat more

Settling point theory
indicates the level at which a person’s weight settles in response to caloric intake and expenditure (influenced by environment as well as biology)

Anorexia Nervosa
Severe weight loss, starvation, fear of obesity.
(experienced by people with low self-evaluation and perfectionist standards)

Bulimia Nervosa
Binge Eating, vomiting, excessive exercise & laxative use

Homosexual Orientation
One’s own sex

Heterosexual Orientation
The other’s sex

Erotic Plasticity
One’s sex drive can be changed by cultural or social factors

exclusion from a society or group
(ignoring someone, silent treatment &etc).

James-Lange Theory (emotion)
Experience of physiological arousal –> Awareness of emotion
(arousal comes before emotion)

Cannon-Bard Theory (emotion)
Experience of physiological arousal <----> Awareness of emotion
(occurs at the same time)

Schachter-Singer Two-Factor Theory (emotion)
Experience physiological arousal –> make a cognitive interpretation of arousal –> experience an emotion.
( searches environment for an explanation)

Adrenal hormones radiate through the body
(release epinephrine/adrenaline and norepinephrine/calms us down)

What do lie detector tests actually detect?
records autonomic fluctuations when questioned. * DOES NOT DETECT LIES. —- monitors heart rate, blood pressure, respiration

Spillover effect
Our arousal response to one event spills over into our response to the next event

6 Universal Facial Expressions
1)Happiness – raised cheeks
4)Fear- eyebrows raised and pulled together

Display Rules
Norms that regulate appropriate expressions of emotions
(how and when emotions are expressed)

Catharsis hypothesis
maintains that “releasing” aggressive energy
(doesn’t work to calm us down- you’re gonna get angrier)

Feel-Good, Do-Good Phenomenon
people’s tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood

Relative Deprivation
comparing their positions to others and realize that they have less of what they believe themselves to be entitled than those around them

process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, that we appraise as threatening or challenging

General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
predictable way the body responses to stress
– Alarm Reaction: heart rate zooms, shock, “fight or flight”
– Resistance: temperature, blood pressure, respiration remains high, helps you fight
– Exhaustion: more vulnerable to illness or collapse, even death

Type A vs. Type B personalities
Type A: competitive, hard driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, anger issues, more likely to have a heart attack
Type B: easygoing, relaxed, chilled

Explicit Memory
When you are trying to intentionally remember something
ex: dates, history & etc

Mood-Congruent Memory
Memories connecting with emotions
Emotions connecting with memories