AP Psychology Module 6

Who was the first to emphasize that psychology should be restricted to the scientific study of observable behavior?
Watson
For the most rapid conditioning a CS should be presented:
About a half-second before the UCS
The predictability of an association between a CS and a UCS facilitates an organism’s ability to anticipate the occurrence of the UCS. This fact is most likely to be highlighted by a(n) __________ perspective.
Cognitive
If the sound of an electric can opener causes a cat to salivate because the can opener has been associated with the presentation of food, the cat’s salivation to the sound of the can opener is a(n):
Conditioned response
Jack finally takes out the garbage in order to get his father to stop pestering him. Jack’s behavior is being influenced by:
Negative reinforcements
After Pavlov had conditioned a dog to salivate to a tone, he repeatedly sounded the tone without presenting the food. As a result, ________ occurred.
Extinction
For professional baseball players, swinging at a pitched ball is reinforced with a home run on a _________ schedule.
Variable-ratio
In promoting observational learning, the most effective models are those that we perceive as:
Any of the above
{Similar to ourselves; respected and admired; successful}
Classical and operant conditioning both illustrate:
Associative learning
Which of the following is an unconditioned response?
Jerking your hand off a very hot stove
Because Carol would always pick up her newborn daughter when she began to cry, her daughter is now a real crybaby. In this case, picking up the infant served as a(n) ________ for crying.
Positive reinforce
The researcher most closely associated with the study of classical conditioning is:
Pavlov
Gambling at the slot machines is reinforced according to what schedule?
Variable-ratio
Which pioneering learning researcher highlighted the antisocial effects of aggressive models on children’s behavior?
Bandura
On an intermittent reinforcement schedule, reinforcement is given:
Only some of the time
Putting on your coat when it is cold outside is a behavior that is maintained by:
Negative reinforcement
The law of effect was most clearly highlighted by:
Skinner’s experiments on reinforcement
Regarding the impact of television violence on children, most researchers believe that
There is a correlation between exposure to violence and aggressive behavior
Learning is best defined as:
A relatively permanent change in the behavior of an organism due to experience
The infant Albert developed a fear of rats after a white rat was associated with a loud noise. In this example, fear of the white rat was the:
CR
One difference between classical and operant conditioning is that:
In classical conditioning the responses are automatically elicited by stimuli
Lars, a shoe salesman, is paid every two weeks, whereas Tom receives a commission for each pair of shoes he sells. Evidently, Lars is paid on a ____ schedule of reinforcement, and Tom on a _____ schedule of reinforcement.
Fixed interval; Fixed ratio
Little Albert developed a fear of rats after a white rat was presented with a loud noise. In this case, the loud noise was the:
Unconditioned stimulus
During extinction, the ____ is omitted; as a result, the ___ seems to disappear.
UCS; CR
If the onset of alight reliably signals the onset of food, a rat in a Skinner box will work to turn on the light. In this case, the light is a _________ reinforcer.
Conditioned
Two-year-old Philip was recently clawed by the neighbor’s cat. Philip’s newly developed tendency to fear all small animals demonstrates the process of:
Generalization
A word of praise is to a soothing backrub as ________ is to ____________.
Conditioned reinforcer; Primary reinforcer
Learning by imitating others’ behaviors is called ______ learning. The researcher best known for studying this type of learning is __________.
Observational; Bandura
Long after being bitten by a stray dog, Allen found that his fear of dogs seemed to have disappeared. To his surprise, however, when he was recently confronted by a stray dog, he experienced a sudden twinge of anxiety. This sudden anxiety best illustrates:
Spontaneous recovery
Which of the following is an example of reinforcement?
All of the above are examples of reinforcement
{Presenting a positive stimulus after a response; Removing an unpleasant stimulus after a response; Being told that you have done a good job}
The overjustification effect involves the loss of
Intrinsic motivation
Jennifer proofreads manuscripts for a publisher and is paid $10 for every three pages she reads. Jennifer is reinforced on a ________ schedule.
Fixed-ratio
In Pavlov’s experiments, the taste of food triggered salivation in a dog. The food in the dog’s mouth was the:
UCS
After discovering that her usual route home was closed due to road repairs, Sharetta used her knowledge of the city and sense of direction to find an alternate route. This is an example of:
Using a cognitive map
Which of the following is an example of shaping?
A parrot is rewarded first for making any sound similar to “Laura” and then for “Speaking” its owner’s name
Punishment is a controversial way of controlling behavior because:
Off all the above reasons
{The punished subject may now make a habit of avoiding the punisher and in turn losing contact, respect, and a relationship with that person who may in fact be a parent; Punishing stimuli often create fear; Punishment often increases aggressiveness}
B. F. Skinner recommended that we control behavior with ________ rather than with ________.
Reinforcement; Punishment
The psychologist most closely associated with the study of operant conditioning was:
Skinner
In Watson and Raynor’s experiment, the loud noise was the _____ and the white rat was the _____.
UCS; CS
The highest rate of response is produced by a ____ schedule of reinforcement.
Variable ratio
Pavlov is to ________ as Skinner is to ________.
Respondent behavior; Operant behavior
The initial stage of classical conditioning during which a response to a neutral stimulus is established and gradually strengthened is called:
Acquisition
When people are paid for performing tasks they enjoy, their self-motivation may decrease. This is called:
The over-justification effect
If a ringing bell causes a dog to salivate because the bell has been regularly associated with food in the mouth, the UCR is the:
Salivation to the food in the mouth
After watching coverage of the Olympics on television, Lynn and Susan have been staging their own “summer games.” Which of the following best accounts for their behavior?
Observational learning
Which of the following behaviors is typically reinforced on a variable-ratio schedule?
Inserting coins into a slot machine
Online testing systems and interactive software are applications of the operant conditioning principles of:
Shaping and immediate reinforcement
Julie drinks alcohol in the early evening because it relieves her anxiety. Her drinking is likely to continue because it is followed by a ________ reinforcer.
Negative
Mr. Trapper often tell his children to buckle their seatbelts, but rarely does so himself. His children will probably learn to:
Tell others it is important to use seat belts but rarely use them themselves
Airline frequent flyer programs that reward customers with a free flight after every 25,000 miles of travel illustrate the use of a ______ schedule of reinforcement.
Fixed-ratio