Ap Psychology Chapter 2 Test Questions – Flashcards

question
Life support center of the neuron.
answer
Cell Body
question
Branching extensions at the cell body. Receive messages from other neurons.
answer
Dendrites
question
Long single extension of a neuron, covered with myelin sheath to insulate and speed up messages through neurons.
answer
Axon
question
Branched endings of an axon that transmit messages to other neurons.
answer
Terminal Branches of the Axon
question
occurs when positive ions enter the neuron, making it more prone to firing an action potential.
answer
Depolarization
question
occurs when negative ions enter the neuron, making it less prone to firing an action potential.
answer
Hyperpolarization
question
when the positive ions outweigh the negative ions and the neuron fires
answer
Threshold
question
After a neuron fires an action potential it pauses for a short period to recharge itself to fire again.
answer
Refractory Period
question
pump positive ions out from the inside of the neuron, making them ready for another action potential.
answer
Sodium-Potassium Pump
question
a junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. This tiny gap is called the synaptic gap or cleft.
answer
Synapse
question
Neurotransmitters in the synapse are reabsorbed into the sending neurons through the process of _______. This process applies the brakes on neurotransmitter action.
answer
Reuptake
question
1. Dendrites receive a neurotransmitter 2. Neurotransmitters hyper/depolarize the cell 3. Cell reaches threshold and fires 4. Action potential travels down the axon 5. reaches terminal branches that release neurotransmitter 6. Binds to dendrites on next neuron
answer
Process
question
mood regulation
answer
What are serotonin pathways involved with?
question
diseases such as Parkinson's and Schizophrenia
answer
What are Dopamine pathways involved with?
question
answer
What are each Neurotransmitters involved with?
question
feel good chemicals
answer
What are endorphin's?
question
A substance (molecule) that acts against and blocks an action.
answer
Antagonist
question
A substance (molecule) that acts like another substance and therefore stimulates an action.
answer
Agonist
question
Consists of all nerve cells in the body. It is the body's speedy electrochemical communication system.
answer
Nervous System
question
the brain and spinal cord
answer
What does the Central Nervous System (CNS) consist of?
question
the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system (CNS) to the rest of the body
answer
Peripheral Nervous System
question
carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the CNS
answer
Sensory Neurons
question
carry outgoing information from the CNS to muscles and glands
answer
Motor Neurons
question
connect two neurons
answer
Interneurons
question
support network for neurons
answer
Glial Cells
question
provide nutrition to neurons
answer
Astrocytes
question
insulate neurons as myelin
answer
What do Oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells do?
question
The division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles.
answer
Somatic Nervous System
question
Part of the PNS that controls the glands and other muscles.
answer
Autonomic Nervous System
question
Division of the ANS that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
answer
Sympathetic Nervous System
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Division of the ANS that calms the body, conserving its energy.
answer
Parasympathetic Nervous System
question
the body's "slow" chemical communication system. Communication is carried out by hormones synthesized by a set of glands
answer
Endocrine System
question
chemicals synthesized by the endocrine glands that are secreted in the bloodstream. Hormones affect the brain and many other tissues of the body.
answer
Hormones
question
Is called the "master gland." The anterior pituitary lobe releases hormones that regulate other glands. The posterior lobe regulates water and salt balance.
answer
Pituitary Gland
question
brain region controlling the pituitary gland (ENDOCRINE SYSTEM)
answer
Hypothalamus
question
affects metabolism (ENDOCRINE SYSTEM)
answer
Thyroid Gland
question
helps regulate calcium levels (ENDOCRINE SYSTEM)
answer
Parathyroids
question
produces hormones such as sex hormones and cortisal (ENDOCRINE SYSTEM)
answer
Adrenal Glands
question
inner part of adrenal glands that help to trigger the "fight or flight" response (ENDOCRINE SYSTEM)
answer
Medulla
question
regulates blood sugar (ENDOCRINE SYSTEM)
answer
Pancrease
question
secretes female sex hormones (ENDOCRINE SYSTEM)
answer
Ovary
question
secretes male sex hormones (ENDOCRINE SYSTEM)
answer
Testis
question
experimentally destroys brain tissue to study animal behaviors after such destruction (TECHNIQUE TO STUDY BRAIN)
answer
Lesions
question
shed light on a number of brain disorders. Alterations in brain morphology due to neurological and psychiatric diseases are now being cataloged. (TECHNIQUE TO STUDY BRAIN)
answer
Clinical Study
question
An amplified recording of the electrical waves sweeping across the brain's surface, measured by electrodes placed on the scalp.
answer
Electroencephalogram (EEG)
question
a visual display of brain activity that detects a radioactive form of glucose while the brain performs a given task.
answer
PET (positron emission topography) Scan
question
uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of brain tissue.
answer
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
question
base of the brain stem that controls heartbeat and breathing
answer
Medulla (Brain)
question
nerve network in the brain stem that plays a large part in controlling arousal
answer
Reticular Formation
question
brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem. It directs messages to the sensory areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla.
answer
Thalamus
question
the "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem. It helps coordinate voluntary movements and balance
answer
Cerebellum
question
is a doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brain stem and cerebrum, associated with emotions such as fear, aggression and drives for food and sex. It includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus.
answer
Limbic System
question
consists of two almond-shaped neural clusters linked to the emotions of fear and anger
answer
Amygdala
question
refers to the brain's ability to modify itself after some type of injury or illness.
answer
Plasticity
question
The intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres. It is the body's ultimate control and information processing center
answer
Cerebral Cortex
question
forehead
answer
Where is the frontal lobe?
question
top to rear head
answer
Where is the parietal lobe?
question
back head
answer
Where is the occipital lobe?
question
sides of the head
answer
Where is the temporal lobe?
question
area at the rear of the frontal lobes that control voluntary movements
answer
Motor Cortex
question
receives information from the sense organs and the surface of the skin
answer
Sensory Cortex (parietal)
question
loss of language skills usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area or to Wernicke's area
answer
Aphasia
question
transforms visual representations into auditory code
answer
Angular Gyrus
question
controls speech muscles via the motor cortex
answer
Broca's Area
question
interprets audio code
answer
Wernicke's area
question
receives written words as well as visual stimulation
answer
Visual Cortex
question
A
answer
An axon transmits messages ________ the cell body and a dendrite transmits messages ________ the cell body. a. away from; toward b. away from; away from c. toward; away from d. toward; toward
question
A
answer
The venom of the black widow spider causes violent muscle contractions by flooding synapses with a. ACh. b. GABA. c. dopamine. d. adrenaline.
question
A
answer
Depressed mood states are linked to ________ levels of serotonin and ________ levels of norepinephrine. a. low; low b. high; high c. low; high d. high; low
question
B
answer
A drug that blocks the reuptake of a particular neurotransmitter is called a(n) a. opiate. b. antagonist. c. glutamate. d. agonist.
question
D
answer
The peripheral nervous system consists of a. association areas. b. the spinal cord. c. the reticular formation. d. sensory and motor neurons.
question
D
answer
The autonomic nervous system most directly controls a. speech production. b. thinking and memory. c. movement of the arms and legs. d. bladder contractions.
question
B
answer
Although Ron has no genital sensations, he is capable of an erection if his genitals are stimulated. Ron's experience is most indicative of a: A. Hemispheretomy. B. Severed spinal cord. C. Split brain. D. Reward deficiency syndrome.
question
A
answer
The release of epinephrine and norepinephrine ________ blood pressure and _______ blood sugar levels. A. Raises; raises B. Lowers; lowers C. Raises; lowers D. Lowers; raises
question
C
answer
To monitor the electrical activity in the brain that is triggered by hearing one's own name, researchers would make use of a(n) A. MRI. B. PET scan. C. EEG. D. Brain lesion.
question
B
answer
Research has suggested that a reward deficiency syndrome may contribute to: A. Insomnia. B. Alcoholism. C. Schizophrenia. D. Parkinson's disease.
question
B
answer
Which lobe of the cerebral cortex is most directly involved in speaking? A. Occipital B. Frontal C. Temporal D. Parietal
question
A
answer
The visual cortex is located in the Answer: A. Occipital lobes. B. Parietal lobes. C. Temporal lobes. D. Association areas.
question
D
answer
Following massive damage to his frontal lobes, Phineas Gage was most strikingly debilitated by A. Plasticity. B. Memory loss. C. Auditory hallucinations. D. Irritability
question
D
answer
Brain scans indicate that well-practiced pianists have a larger-than-usual auditory cortex area that encodes piano sounds. This best illustrates A. Hemispherectomy. B. Tomography. C. Neural prosthetics. D. Plasticity
question
B
answer
Research with split-brain patients suggests that the ________ typically constructs the theories people offer to explain their own behaviors. A. Autonomic nervous system B. Left cerebral hemisphere C. Somatic nervous system D. Right cerebral hemisphere
question
B
answer
The vast majority of neurons in the body's information system are Answer A. Stem cells. B. Interneurons. C. Motor neurons. D. Sensory neurons.
question
D
answer
Natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control are called Answer A. ACh agonists. B. Dendrites. C. Morphene antagonists. D. Endorphins.
question
B
answer
Drugs that block the reuptake of serotonin will thereby increase the concentration of serotonin molecules in the Answer A. Axon terminals. B. Synaptic gaps. C. Glial cells. D. Endocrine glands
question
A
answer
Botox injections smooth facial wrinkles because botulin is a(n) A. ACh antagonist. B. Dopamine antagonist. C. ACh agonist. D. Dopamine agonist.
question
D
answer
In stressful situations, the sympathetic nervous system ________ blood sugar levels and ________ the pupils of the eyes. Answer A. Lowers; dilates B. Raises; contracts C. Lowers; contracts D. Raises; dilates
question
C
answer
While listening to operatic solos, musicians process the lyrics and the tunes in separate brain areas. This most clearly illustrates the functioning of different A. Neurotransmitters. B. Reticular formations. C. Neural networks. D. Limbic systems.
question
D
answer
The endocrine system consists of A. Association areas. B. Neural networks. C. Interneurons. D. Glands.
question
C
answer
Which of the following would be most useful for detecting the brain areas that are most active as a person performs mathematical calculations? Answer A. a brain lesion B. an interneuron C. a PET scan D. a hemispherectomy
question
C
answer
Which region of the brain appears to have the oldest evolutionary history? Answer A. Frontal lobes B. Limbic system C. Brainstem D. Corpus callosum
question
C
answer
After suffering an accidental brain injury, Kira has difficulty walking in a smooth and coordinated manner. She has probably suffered damage to her A. Amygdala. B. Hypothalamus C. Cerebellum. D. Corpus callosum
question
D
answer
The limbic system structure that regulates hunger is called the: A. Thalamus. B. Amygdala. C. Hippocampus. D. Hypothalamus.
question
B
answer
Which portion of the cerebral cortex is most directly involved in making plans and formulating moral judgments? A. Occipital lobes B. Frontal lobe C. Temporal lobes D. Parietal lobes
question
D
answer
The regions of the parietal lobes that are involved in mathematical and spatial reasoning are known as: A. The amygdala. B. Reward centers. C. The reticular formation. D. Association areas.
question
C
answer
The successful functioning of children who have experienced the surgical removal of an entire cerebral hemisphere best illustrates the value of: A. Neural prosthetics. B. Phrenology. C. Plasticity. D. ACh antagonists.
question
A
answer
Speech is processed primarily in the right hemisphere by the ________ of those who are left-handed and by the ________ of those who are right-handed. A. minority; minority B. majority; majority C. minority; majority D. majority; minority
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question
Life support center of the neuron.
answer
Cell Body
question
Branching extensions at the cell body. Receive messages from other neurons.
answer
Dendrites
question
Long single extension of a neuron, covered with myelin sheath to insulate and speed up messages through neurons.
answer
Axon
question
Branched endings of an axon that transmit messages to other neurons.
answer
Terminal Branches of the Axon
question
occurs when positive ions enter the neuron, making it more prone to firing an action potential.
answer
Depolarization
question
occurs when negative ions enter the neuron, making it less prone to firing an action potential.
answer
Hyperpolarization
question
when the positive ions outweigh the negative ions and the neuron fires
answer
Threshold
question
After a neuron fires an action potential it pauses for a short period to recharge itself to fire again.
answer
Refractory Period
question
pump positive ions out from the inside of the neuron, making them ready for another action potential.
answer
Sodium-Potassium Pump
question
a junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. This tiny gap is called the synaptic gap or cleft.
answer
Synapse
question
Neurotransmitters in the synapse are reabsorbed into the sending neurons through the process of _______. This process applies the brakes on neurotransmitter action.
answer
Reuptake
question
1. Dendrites receive a neurotransmitter 2. Neurotransmitters hyper/depolarize the cell 3. Cell reaches threshold and fires 4. Action potential travels down the axon 5. reaches terminal branches that release neurotransmitter 6. Binds to dendrites on next neuron
answer
Process
question
mood regulation
answer
What are serotonin pathways involved with?
question
diseases such as Parkinson's and Schizophrenia
answer
What are Dopamine pathways involved with?
question
answer
What are each Neurotransmitters involved with?
question
feel good chemicals
answer
What are endorphin's?
question
A substance (molecule) that acts against and blocks an action.
answer
Antagonist
question
A substance (molecule) that acts like another substance and therefore stimulates an action.
answer
Agonist
question
Consists of all nerve cells in the body. It is the body's speedy electrochemical communication system.
answer
Nervous System
question
the brain and spinal cord
answer
What does the Central Nervous System (CNS) consist of?
question
the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system (CNS) to the rest of the body
answer
Peripheral Nervous System
question
carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the CNS
answer
Sensory Neurons
question
carry outgoing information from the CNS to muscles and glands
answer
Motor Neurons
question
connect two neurons
answer
Interneurons
question
support network for neurons
answer
Glial Cells
question
provide nutrition to neurons
answer
Astrocytes
question
insulate neurons as myelin
answer
What do Oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells do?
question
The division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles.
answer
Somatic Nervous System
question
Part of the PNS that controls the glands and other muscles.
answer
Autonomic Nervous System
question
Division of the ANS that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
answer
Sympathetic Nervous System
question
Division of the ANS that calms the body, conserving its energy.
answer
Parasympathetic Nervous System
question
the body's "slow" chemical communication system. Communication is carried out by hormones synthesized by a set of glands
answer
Endocrine System
question
chemicals synthesized by the endocrine glands that are secreted in the bloodstream. Hormones affect the brain and many other tissues of the body.
answer
Hormones
question
Is called the "master gland." The anterior pituitary lobe releases hormones that regulate other glands. The posterior lobe regulates water and salt balance.
answer
Pituitary Gland
question
brain region controlling the pituitary gland (ENDOCRINE SYSTEM)
answer
Hypothalamus
question
affects metabolism (ENDOCRINE SYSTEM)
answer
Thyroid Gland
question
helps regulate calcium levels (ENDOCRINE SYSTEM)
answer
Parathyroids
question
produces hormones such as sex hormones and cortisal (ENDOCRINE SYSTEM)
answer
Adrenal Glands
question
inner part of adrenal glands that help to trigger the "fight or flight" response (ENDOCRINE SYSTEM)
answer
Medulla
question
regulates blood sugar (ENDOCRINE SYSTEM)
answer
Pancrease
question
secretes female sex hormones (ENDOCRINE SYSTEM)
answer
Ovary
question
secretes male sex hormones (ENDOCRINE SYSTEM)
answer
Testis
question
experimentally destroys brain tissue to study animal behaviors after such destruction (TECHNIQUE TO STUDY BRAIN)
answer
Lesions
question
shed light on a number of brain disorders. Alterations in brain morphology due to neurological and psychiatric diseases are now being cataloged. (TECHNIQUE TO STUDY BRAIN)
answer
Clinical Study
question
An amplified recording of the electrical waves sweeping across the brain's surface, measured by electrodes placed on the scalp.
answer
Electroencephalogram (EEG)
question
a visual display of brain activity that detects a radioactive form of glucose while the brain performs a given task.
answer
PET (positron emission topography) Scan
question
uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of brain tissue.
answer
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
question
base of the brain stem that controls heartbeat and breathing
answer
Medulla (Brain)
question
nerve network in the brain stem that plays a large part in controlling arousal
answer
Reticular Formation
question
brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem. It directs messages to the sensory areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla.
answer
Thalamus
question
the "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem. It helps coordinate voluntary movements and balance
answer
Cerebellum
question
is a doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brain stem and cerebrum, associated with emotions such as fear, aggression and drives for food and sex. It includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus.
answer
Limbic System
question
consists of two almond-shaped neural clusters linked to the emotions of fear and anger
answer
Amygdala
question
refers to the brain's ability to modify itself after some type of injury or illness.
answer
Plasticity
question
The intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres. It is the body's ultimate control and information processing center
answer
Cerebral Cortex
question
forehead
answer
Where is the frontal lobe?
question
top to rear head
answer
Where is the parietal lobe?
question
back head
answer
Where is the occipital lobe?
question
sides of the head
answer
Where is the temporal lobe?
question
area at the rear of the frontal lobes that control voluntary movements
answer
Motor Cortex
question
receives information from the sense organs and the surface of the skin
answer
Sensory Cortex (parietal)
question
loss of language skills usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area or to Wernicke's area
answer
Aphasia
question
transforms visual representations into auditory code
answer
Angular Gyrus
question
controls speech muscles via the motor cortex
answer
Broca's Area
question
interprets audio code
answer
Wernicke's area
question
receives written words as well as visual stimulation
answer
Visual Cortex
question
A
answer
An axon transmits messages ________ the cell body and a dendrite transmits messages ________ the cell body. a. away from; toward b. away from; away from c. toward; away from d. toward; toward
question
A
answer
The venom of the black widow spider causes violent muscle contractions by flooding synapses with a. ACh. b. GABA. c. dopamine. d. adrenaline.
question
A
answer
Depressed mood states are linked to ________ levels of serotonin and ________ levels of norepinephrine. a. low; low b. high; high c. low; high d. high; low
question
B
answer
A drug that blocks the reuptake of a particular neurotransmitter is called a(n) a. opiate. b. antagonist. c. glutamate. d. agonist.
question
D
answer
The peripheral nervous system consists of a. association areas. b. the spinal cord. c. the reticular formation. d. sensory and motor neurons.
question
D
answer
The autonomic nervous system most directly controls a. speech production. b. thinking and memory. c. movement of the arms and legs. d. bladder contractions.
question
B
answer
Although Ron has no genital sensations, he is capable of an erection if his genitals are stimulated. Ron's experience is most indicative of a: A. Hemispheretomy. B. Severed spinal cord. C. Split brain. D. Reward deficiency syndrome.
question
A
answer
The release of epinephrine and norepinephrine ________ blood pressure and _______ blood sugar levels. A. Raises; raises B. Lowers; lowers C. Raises; lowers D. Lowers; raises
question
C
answer
To monitor the electrical activity in the brain that is triggered by hearing one's own name, researchers would make use of a(n) A. MRI. B. PET scan. C. EEG. D. Brain lesion.
question
B
answer
Research has suggested that a reward deficiency syndrome may contribute to: A. Insomnia. B. Alcoholism. C. Schizophrenia. D. Parkinson's disease.
question
B
answer
Which lobe of the cerebral cortex is most directly involved in speaking? A. Occipital B. Frontal C. Temporal D. Parietal
question
A
answer
The visual cortex is located in the Answer: A. Occipital lobes. B. Parietal lobes. C. Temporal lobes. D. Association areas.
question
D
answer
Following massive damage to his frontal lobes, Phineas Gage was most strikingly debilitated by A. Plasticity. B. Memory loss. C. Auditory hallucinations. D. Irritability
question
D
answer
Brain scans indicate that well-practiced pianists have a larger-than-usual auditory cortex area that encodes piano sounds. This best illustrates A. Hemispherectomy. B. Tomography. C. Neural prosthetics. D. Plasticity
question
B
answer
Research with split-brain patients suggests that the ________ typically constructs the theories people offer to explain their own behaviors. A. Autonomic nervous system B. Left cerebral hemisphere C. Somatic nervous system D. Right cerebral hemisphere
question
B
answer
The vast majority of neurons in the body's information system are Answer A. Stem cells. B. Interneurons. C. Motor neurons. D. Sensory neurons.
question
D
answer
Natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control are called Answer A. ACh agonists. B. Dendrites. C. Morphene antagonists. D. Endorphins.
question
B
answer
Drugs that block the reuptake of serotonin will thereby increase the concentration of serotonin molecules in the Answer A. Axon terminals. B. Synaptic gaps. C. Glial cells. D. Endocrine glands
question
A
answer
Botox injections smooth facial wrinkles because botulin is a(n) A. ACh antagonist. B. Dopamine antagonist. C. ACh agonist. D. Dopamine agonist.
question
D
answer
In stressful situations, the sympathetic nervous system ________ blood sugar levels and ________ the pupils of the eyes. Answer A. Lowers; dilates B. Raises; contracts C. Lowers; contracts D. Raises; dilates
question
C
answer
While listening to operatic solos, musicians process the lyrics and the tunes in separate brain areas. This most clearly illustrates the functioning of different A. Neurotransmitters. B. Reticular formations. C. Neural networks. D. Limbic systems.
question
D
answer
The endocrine system consists of A. Association areas. B. Neural networks. C. Interneurons. D. Glands.
question
C
answer
Which of the following would be most useful for detecting the brain areas that are most active as a person performs mathematical calculations? Answer A. a brain lesion B. an interneuron C. a PET scan D. a hemispherectomy
question
C
answer
Which region of the brain appears to have the oldest evolutionary history? Answer A. Frontal lobes B. Limbic system C. Brainstem D. Corpus callosum
question
C
answer
After suffering an accidental brain injury, Kira has difficulty walking in a smooth and coordinated manner. She has probably suffered damage to her A. Amygdala. B. Hypothalamus C. Cerebellum. D. Corpus callosum
question
D
answer
The limbic system structure that regulates hunger is called the: A. Thalamus. B. Amygdala. C. Hippocampus. D. Hypothalamus.
question
B
answer
Which portion of the cerebral cortex is most directly involved in making plans and formulating moral judgments? A. Occipital lobes B. Frontal lobe C. Temporal lobes D. Parietal lobes
question
D
answer
The regions of the parietal lobes that are involved in mathematical and spatial reasoning are known as: A. The amygdala. B. Reward centers. C. The reticular formation. D. Association areas.
question
C
answer
The successful functioning of children who have experienced the surgical removal of an entire cerebral hemisphere best illustrates the value of: A. Neural prosthetics. B. Phrenology. C. Plasticity. D. ACh antagonists.
question
A
answer
Speech is processed primarily in the right hemisphere by the ________ of those who are left-handed and by the ________ of those who are right-handed. A. minority; minority B. majority; majority C. minority; majority D. majority; minority