Please enter something

AP Psychology: Chapter 14

question

Antabuse
answer

Medication that blocks the metabolism of acetaldehyde, a breakdown product of alcohol, and is used to help alcoholics refrain from alcohol use; when combined with alcohol, causes violent nausea.
question

Anti-Anxiety Medication
answer

Drugs that help reduce a person’s experience of fear or anxiety [Benzodiazepines (do not take with alcohol)- Alprazolam (Xanax) ; Chlordiazepoxide (librium), Diazepam (valium), Lorazepam (ativan)]
question

Antidepressant Medications
answer

Medication designed to alleviate symptoms of depression, but often prescribed for other types of conditions
question

Aversion Therapy
answer

Behavior therapy in which an aversive stimulus is paired with a stimulus that elicits an undesirable response in hopes that the behavior will change in the future to avoid the aversive stimuli.
question

Aversive Conditioning
answer

Relatively ineffective type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state with an unwanted behavior;Behavioral therapy techniques aimed at elimination undesirable behavior patterns by teaching the person to associate them with pain and discomfort
question

Behavior Contracting
answer

Form of operant conditioning therapy in which the client and therapist set behavioral goals and agree on reinforcements the person will receive upon reaching those goals
question

Behavior Therapies
answer

Therapeutic approaches that are based on the belief that all behavior, normal and abnormal, is learned, and that the objective of therapy is to teach people new, more satisfying ways of behaving; Treatments, based on the behavioral and social cognitive theories of learning, that use principles of learning to reduce or eliminate maladaptive behavior.
question

Biofeedback
answer

Technique that uses monitoring devices to provide precise information about internal physiological processes, such as heart rate or blood pressure, to teach people to gain voluntary control over these functions; System for electronically recording, amplifying, and feeding back information regarding a subtle physiological state, such as blood pressure or muscle tension.
question

Biological Treatments
answer

Group of approaches, including medication, electroconvulsive therapy, and psychosurgery, that are sometimes used to treat psychological disorders in conjunction with, or or instead of, psychotherapy: treatment that focuses on organic or biological aspects: includes medication, ECT, psychosurgery; best used in conjunction with other forms of therapy because when the biological treatment ceases, typically the symptoms return.
question

Client-Centered Therapy
answer

Non-directional form of therapy developed by Carl Rogers that calls for unconditional positive regard of the client by the therapist with the goal of helping the client become fully functioning;humanistic therapy based on Carl Roger’s beliefs that an individual has an unlimited capacity for psychological growth and will continue to grow unless barriers are placed in the way.
question

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)
answer

Effective therapeutic modality that seeks to identify negative and irrational patterns of thought and challenge them based on rational evidence and thoughts; form of therapy designed to identify and change irrational, unproductive ways of thinking, and hence reduce negative emotions and consequences
question

Cognitive Therapies
answer

Psychotherapies that emphasize changing people’s perceptions of their life situation as a way of modifying their behavior; group of psychotherapies based on the assumption that psychological problems are due to maladaptive patterns of thinking; treatment techniques focus on recognizing and altering these unhealthy thinking patterns.
question

Couple Therapy
answer

Form of group therapy intended to help troubled partners improve their problems of communication and interaction
question

Deinstitutionalization
answer

Policy of treating people with severe psychological disorders in the larger community, or in small residential centers such as halfway houses, rather than in large public hospitals; 1960s and 1970s governmental policy that focused on releasing hospitalized psychiatric patients into the community and closing mental hospitals.
question

Eclecticism
answer

Psychotherapeutic approach that recognizes the value of a broad treatment package over a rigid commitment to one particular form of therapy
question

Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
answer

Biological therapy in which a mild electrical current is passed through the brain for a short period, often producing convulsions and temporary coma (used to treat severe, prolonged depression)
question

Exposure Therapy
answer

Approach to treatment that involves confronting an emotion-arousing stimulus directly and repeatedly, ultimately leading to a decrease in the emotional response; behavioral therapy for phobias, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, or related anxiety disorders in which the person is repeatedly exposed to the disturbing object or situation under controlled conditions.
question

Family Therapy
answer

Form of group therapy that sees the family as at least partly responsible for the individual’s problems and that seeks to change all family members’ behaviors to the benefit of the family unit as well as the troubled individual;
question

Free Asasociation
answer

Psychoanalytical technique that encourages the client to talk without inhibition about whatever thoughts of fantasies come to mind.
question

Gestalt Therapy
answer

Insight therapy that emphasizes the wholeness of the personality and attempts to reawaken people to their emotions and sensations in the here-and-now; existentialist approach to treatment with the goal of helping the client become aware of his or her thoughts, behaviors, experiences, and feelings and to “own” or take responsibility for them.
question

Group Therapy
answer

Type of psychotherapy in which people meet regularly to interact and help one another achieve insight into their feelings and behavior
question

Insight
answer

Learning that occurs rapidly as a result of understanding all the elements of a problem
question

Insight Therapies
answer

Variety of individual psychotherapies designed to give people a better awareness and understanding of their feelings, motivations, and actions in the hope that this will help them adjust; variety of therapies which aim to improve psychological functioning by increasing the client’s awareness of underlying motives and defenses
question

Learned Helplessness
answer

Failure to take steps to avoid or escape from an unpleasant or aversive stimulus that occurs as a result of previous exposure to unavoidable painful stimuli; condition that occurs after a period of negative consequences where the person begins to believe they have no control.
question

Lithium
answer

Most effective mood stabilizer in the treatment of mania and depression; naturally occurring salt that, in purified form, is used to treat certain psychiatric disorders, especially bipolar disease The therapeutic level of lithium the amount needed to treat bipolar disorders is perilously close to the level that can cause toxicity, so monitoring of blood levels is required.
question

Modeling
answer

Behavior therapy in which the person learns desired behaviors by watching others perform those behaviors; therapeutic technique in which the client learns appropriate behavior through imitation of someone else.
question

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)
answer

A class of antidepressant drug that inhibits monoamine oxidase, which breaks down neurotransmitters, to increase levels of those neurotransmitters: block the destruction of norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin.
question

Prevention
answer

Strategies for reducing the incidence of emotional disturbance by elimination conditions that cause or contribute to mental disorders and substituting conditions that foster mental well-being
question

Primary Prevention
answer

Techniques and programs to improve the social environment so that new cases of mental disorders do not develop
question

Prozac
answer

Medicine that is an SSRI that treats depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and other disorders.
question

Psychostimulant
answer

Drugs that increase ability to focus attention children with AD/HD
question

Psychosurgery
answer

Brain surgery performed to change a person’s behavior and emotional state; a biological therapy rarely used today
question

Psychotherapy
answer

The use of psychological techniques to treat personality and behavior disorders
question

Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)
answer

Developed by Albert Ellis, a form of psychotherapy based on identifying and correcting irrational beliefs that are believed to underlie emotional and behavioral difficulties
question

Ritalin
answer

Stimulant that Treats attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy
question

Secondary Prevention
answer

Programs to identify groups that are at high risk for mental disorders and to detect maladaptive behavior in these groups and treat it promptly
question

Selective Serotonin Re-Uptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)
answer

Slows down reuptake & causes serotonin to stay in synaptic cleft for a longer period of time
question

Short-Term Psychodynamic Psychotherapy
answer

Insight therapy that is time-limited and focused on trying to help people correct the immediate problems in their lives
question

Stress-Inoculation Therapy
answer

Type of cognitive therapy that trains people to cope with stressful situation by learning a more useful pattern of self-talk
question

Systematic Desentilization
answer

Behavioral technique for reducing a person’s fear and anxiety by gradually associating a new response (relaxation) with stimuli that have been causing the fear and anxiety
question

Tertiary Prevention
answer

Programs to help people adjust to community life after release from a mental hospital
question

Thorazine
answer

Treats mental disorders, severe behavior disorders, severe hiccups, severe nausea and vomiting, and certain types of porphyria. Also used before and after surgery to relieve anxiety. Belongs to a class of drugs called phenothiazines.
question

Token Economy
answer

Operant conditioning therapy in which clients earn tokens (reinforcers) for desired behaviors and exchange them for desired items or privileges
question

Transference
answer

Client’s carrying over to the analyst feelings held toward childhood authority fiugres