AP Psych- Module 41-43: STRESS

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psychoneuroimmunology
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study of how psychological, neural, and endocrine processes together affect the immune system and resulting health.
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coping
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Process by which a person takes some action to manage, master, tolerate, or reduce environmental or internal demands that cause or might cause stress and that tax the individual’s inner resources
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problem-focused coping
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attempting to alleviate stress directly-by changing the stressor or the way we interact with that stressor. (538)
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emotion-focused coping
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In the cognitive-appraisal model, coping strategy directed toward managing the emotional response to a stressful situation so as to lessen its physical or psychological impact; also called palliative impact -When a person regulates their emotions in order to deal with a stressor. They identify feelings, focus on them and work through them.
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stressors
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Specific events or chronic pressures that place demands on a person or threaten the person’s well-being
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biofeedback
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a system for electronically recording, amplifying, and feeding back information regarding a subtle physiological state, such as blood pressure or muscle tension. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 569)
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complimentary and alternative medicine
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Commercially available healthcare treatments that are NOT widely taught in medical schools, used in hospitals, reimbursed by insurance companies, adequately tested. Perceived effectiveness may be due to spontaneous remission -CAM is a broad concept that includes therapies such as bio-feedback, herbal & homeopathic remedies, acupuncture, Ayurveda, naturopathic medicine, environmental medicine, and various forms of massage and medicine
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Approach-approach conflict
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one of Kurt Lewin’s basic types of conflict; conflict dilemma where an individual is both attracted to and repelled by the same goal; the most common form of conflict; there is both good and bad about the goal; the tendency to avoid increases as an individual gets closer to the goal
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Approach-avoidance conflict
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one of Kurt Lewin’s basic types of conflict; conflict dilemma where an individual is both attracted to and repelled by the same goal; the most common form of conflict; there is both good and bad about the goal; the tendency to avoid increases as an individual gets closer to the goal
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Avoidance-avoidance conflict
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one of Kurt Lewin’s basic types of conflict; conflict dilemma where an individual is attracted to 2 possibilities are undesirable or threatening and do not any positive features; people tend to \”escape\” the situation or choose the possibility which is the least worst or wait for the situation to resolve the conflict for the individual -Learning that has occurred when an organism engages in a response that prevents aversive stimulation from occurring
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behavioral medicine
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an interdisciplinary field that focuses on developing and integrating behavioral and biomedical knowledge to promote health and reduce illness; overlaps with and is sometimes indistinguishable from health psychology -integrates behavioral and medical knowledge
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health psychology
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Investigates the psychological factors related to wellness and illness, including the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of medical problems subfield of psychology that provides psychology’s contribution to behavioral medicine
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stress
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the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 550)
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general adaption syndrome
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alarm reaction – activation of the sympathetic nervous system, this brings large amounts of glucose and oxygen to the organs that are most active in warding off danger. Resistance reaction – hormonal response, slower to start but is longer lasting, here the body is trying to return to normal, if body fails to combat the stressor exhaustion occurs in the vital organs, this can put heavy demands on the body especially the heart, blood vessels and adrenal cortex. Exhaustion – occurs due to lack of potassium ie. cells dehydrate. general health determines a persons ability to manage stress
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Type A
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Friedman and Rosenman’s term for competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people -having an exaggerated sense of time urgency, -hostility or easily irritated (main cause of stress and the development of cardiovascular/heart disease), -intense ambition and competitiveness
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Type B
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Friedman and Rosenman’s term for easygoing and relaxed people
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psychophysiological illness
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literally \”mind-body\” illness; any stress-related physical illness, such as hypertension and some headaches. Note: This is distinct from hypochondriasis–misinterpreting normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease

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