AP Psych Cognition

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“A” and “ill” are example of
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morphemes
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A child’s acquisition of grammar first becomes apparent at
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the two-word stage
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A cognitive understanding of memory, emphasizing how information is changed when it is encoded, stored, and retrieved is known as
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the information-processing model
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A dictionary definition would be an example of
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an artificial concept
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A guitarist used ______ to recall how to play the notes of a specific song.
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procedural memory
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A heuristic is best described as
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a rule of thumb
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To solve a math problem where you find the area of a triangle, you use
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an algorithm
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A person who uses a drop of super glue to seal a paper cut on a finger has overcome the obstacle to effective problem solving related to
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functional fixedness
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An _________ is a step-by-step solution to a problem that is likely to be successful.
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algorithm
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Absent-mindedness in a college student would typically involve
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trying to study while watching television.
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According to Freud, the only way to be free of repressed memories is to
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uncover them in therapy
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After the outcome is known, people often have distorted thinking about their original expectations due to
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a hindsight bias
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All of the following are component of thought except
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stimuli
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An eidetic image will fade from memory if you
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describe it
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As the information in this book passes from one stage of your memory to the next, the information becomes more
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meaningful
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At a high school class reunion you are likely to experience a flood of memories that would be unlikely to come to mind under other circumstances. What memory process explains this?
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encoding specificity
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Because of the limited capacity of _______ memory, it is unsafe to talk on a cell phone while driving on a freeway during rush hour.
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working
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Because _______ memories of events before age 3 are extremely rare, early memories of abuse are likely to be
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episodic, erreneous
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Brad is home when all of his lights suddenly go out. His thought that “this is what happens when a circuit breaker is blow” would be considered as
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identifying the problem
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Children, regardless of where they are brought up, speak primarily about which of the following categories of ideas?
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locations, movable objects, and movers
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Chomsky believed that the language acquisition device was
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a combination of speech structures located in the brain
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Concepts cannot be directly observed by
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researchers
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During the memory process of ________, we select, and identify the correct format for the memory system.
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encoding
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Ebbinghaus found that when he returned to a list of words that he had previously memorized a few weeks before, it took him
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fewer trials time to remember the list again.
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Eidetic memory is most often found in
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children
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HM lost the ability to create new memories after his surgery and is suffering from
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anterograde amnesia
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Heuristic strategies show that our thinking is often based on
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experience rather than logic
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Highly emotional memories may cause posttraumatic stress disorder, recent research has found which brain structure to play a significant role in these emotional memories?
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amygdala
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If Ellie who is 2.5 years old says “Cookie me now” she is demonstrating
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telegraphic speech
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If George is trying to remember info for a test and encoded the info correctly but cant remember it after two days there may be a problem with
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storage
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If you learn info in one room and then have to take a test in a different room and your score isnt good, what could explain this
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encoding specificity
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If you look at a certain area on the chalkboard where a certain concept was to help you remember the term, you are using
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a retrieval cue
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If you witness a mugging and the polic ask did you see the scar, you might reply that you did see a scar even if there wasnt one. what explains this?
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misinformation effect
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if you get a call to pick up your brother but then get a call from your friend and you forget about your brother, you would be experiencing
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bsent-mindedness
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if your teacher asks you to provide a definition, you are answering what kind of question?
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recall
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In proactive interference, old memories act to
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block our ability to learn new information.
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In studies completed regarding students’ cognitive maps of the world, researchers found that
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the majority of students placed Europe at the center of the world
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Individuals who have amazingly developed skill despite their mental handicap are referred to as
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savants
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Jenny is locked out of her car is cold and upset. she forgets she has stuff in her purse to help her break into her car. she is demonstrating
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functional fixedness
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Knowing how to check out a book at the library is an example of
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a script
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Long-term potentiation suggest that
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millions of neurons can be involved in storing a single memory.
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Many Alzheimers patients have a memory that initially gives up newer thoughts and memories. In many ways this resembles
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anterograde amnesia
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many individuals can remember an entire sentence that is read to them, even though is exceeds the amount of information we can generally hold in working memory. they do this by
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using the phonological loop
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Many psychologists view creativity as a form of
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divergent thinking
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Modern cognitive research suggests that memory for emotionally arousing events
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is remembered vividly
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New information is related to older memory information during the memory process of
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elaboration
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Noam Chomsky believed that language was
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attributable primarily to nature
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Noam Chomsky has presented evidence supporting his theory that
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children are born with some rules of grammar programmed into their brains
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Once children understand that there are rules regarding language, they have
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reached the two word stage
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One of the reasons that people use algorithms is that they
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will always work if used properly
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Place the stages of language development in correct order.
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babbling,one word, two word, telegraphic
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Remembering an explanation about neural networks is likely held in your
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semantic memory
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Results from PET scan studies suggest that
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thought occurs in widely distributed areas of the brain, and that a range of highly specialized modules deals with different kinds of thought.
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Retrograde amnesia involves _____ and is maybe induced by __________.
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the loss of prior memory traces, head trauma
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Sally said, “I goed to the store.” She is demonstrating an example of
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overregularization
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Sperling’s study involving recall of an array of 12 letters suggested that the actual capacity of sensory memory is
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12 or more items
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The naming explosion begins at about age
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18 months
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The ability of the hippocampus to transfer intermediate memories into long-term memory is known as
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consolidation
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The awareness of what your friend wore to school last April 21st must first pass through _________ memory.
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sensory
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The best strategy by which to transfer information from working memory to long-term memory is to engage in
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elaborative rehearsal
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the capacity of working memory is about _____ items.
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seven
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The concept proposed by Noam Chomsky that suggests that all individuals are born with an innate ability to learn language relies on
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the language acquisition device
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The memory failure caused by transience is adaptive in that it
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prevents memory from becoming overwhelmed
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The memory process of elaboration resembles the Piagetian concept of
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assimilation
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The most representative example of a category is called a
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prototype
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The physical trace associated with long-term memory are known as
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engram
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The sensory register for vision is called _____ memory, whereas the sensory register for hearing is called ______ memory.
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echoic
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The storage capacity of working memory
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is smaller than both sensory and long-term memory
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The three memory stages, in order of processing, are
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sensory, working, and long term
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The TOT phenomenon is explained as due to a poor match between
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retrieval cues and encoding in LTM
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The typical vocabulary of a six-year-old is
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10,000 words
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The __________________ theory claims that establishing more connections with long-term memories makes information more meaningful and memorable and thus easier to recall.
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levels-of-processing
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To answer this multiple choice question, you muse use
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recognition
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Were sensory memories to last longer than normal,
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old information would interfere with incoming information
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When you create in your mind a “typical day at school,” you are experiencing
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concept formation
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When you get a new cat, you will note its unique markings so you can compare it to other cats in the neighborhood. what would a cognitive psychologist call this process of identifying the distinctive features of your cat?
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encoding
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When you learn the tango, you forget the mambo that you learned last year. This is an example of
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retroactive interference
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What kind of forgetting is involved when the sociology I studied yesterday makes it more difficult to learn and remember the psychology I am studying today?
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proactive interference
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Which of the following brain areas is primarily concerned with speech production?
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Broca’s area
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Which of the following is NOT one of Daniel Schater’s “seven sins” of memory?
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encoding failure
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Which of the following is true of creativity?
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creativity first involves becoming an expert in a specific field
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Which of the “sins” of memory probably helps us to avoid dangerous situations we have encountered before?
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persistence
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Which one of the seven “sins” of memory is disputed by those who believe that memories of childhood abuse can, in many cases, be recovered during adulthood?
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suggestibility
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Which part of long-term memory stores autobiographical information?
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episodic memory
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Working memory involves activity in circuits located within the ____________ of the brain.
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frontal cortex
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You try to remember lines by linking each portion of the script to different places in your home. this memory technique is
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method of loci
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_______ are clusters of knowledge that provide general conceptual frameworks regarding certain topics, events, and situations.
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schemas
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______________________ are unique brain wave patterns that are associated with particular stimuli.
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event-related potentials
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_________ memory is primarily what contributes to our sense of self.
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long-term memory
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_______ ______ was the first to hypothesize that people form cognitive maps of their environment to help guide their actions toward certain goals.
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Edward Tolman
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true or false: brain imaging studies indicate that the frontal cortex is activated during a working memory task.
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true
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true or false: children begin to understand rules of grammar at about two years of age.
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true
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true or false: event schemas are also called scripts
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true
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true or false: our concepts of items need to be tangible.
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false
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Patient HM suffered from retrograde amnesia.
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false
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true or false: procedural and declarative memories are the two major forms of long-term memory.
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true
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true or false: those with damaged parietal lobes may experience problems with “common sense”
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false

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