A&P II Chapter 22 Respiratory System

question

Which of the following is not a function of the respiratory system?
answer

Assists in the synthesis of vasodilators
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The upper respiratory tract extends from the nose through the _________.
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larynx
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Each alveolus is surrounded by a web of blood capillaries supplied by the _________.
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pulmonary artery
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Which of the following does not contain ciliated cells?
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larygopharynx
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What is the basic distinction between an alveolar duct and an alveolar atrium?
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their shape
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Which bronchus is about 5cm long and slightly narrower and more horizontal than the one on the opposite side?
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left main bronchus
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The heart indents into the __________ of the left lung.
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cardiac notch
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Crude sounds are formed into intelligible speech by all of the following except the _________.
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epiglottis
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Which law states that the total pressure of a gas mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of its individual gases?
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Dalton’s
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In a healthy person, which of the following will have the greatest influence on resistance to pulmonary airflow?
answer

bronchiole diameter
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The amount of air in excess of tidal volume that can be inhaled with maximum effort is the __________.
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inspiratory reserve volume
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How is the vital capacity calculated?
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Expiratory reserve volume + tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume
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Deep, rapid breathing often seen in terminal diabetes mellitus is known as what?
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Kussmaul respiration
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Tom is in respiratory arrest due to an electrical shock. Why does a good samaritan have up to 4 or 5 minutes to begin CPR and save Tom’s life?
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There is a venous reserve of oxygen in Tom’s blood.
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During exercise, which of the following directly increases respiratory rate?
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Anticipation of the needs of exercising muscle
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Which of the following would slow down gas exchange between the blood and alveolar air?
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an increase in membrane thickness
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The addition of CO2 to the blood generates __________ ions in the RBCs, which in turn stimulates RBCs to unload more oxygen. sodium
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hydrogen
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Each hemoglobin molecule can transport up to __________ oxygen molecules.
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4
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Normally, the systemic arterial blood has a Po2 of ___________ mm Hg, a Pco2 of ___________ mm Hg, and a pH of ___________.
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95; 40; 7.4
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Which of the following enzymes in an RBC breaks H2CO3 down to water and carbon dioxide?
answer

carbonic anhydrase
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In one passage through a bed of systemic blood capillaries, the blood gives up about what percentage of its oxygen? 5
answer

20% to 25%
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Which of the following is the term for a deficiency of oxygen or the inability to utilize oxygen in a tissue?
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hypoxia
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Congestive heart failure results in which of the following?
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ischemic hypoxia
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Which of the following is a lung disease marked by a reduced number of cilia, reduced motility of the remaining cilia, goblet cell hypertrophy and hypersecretion, and thick sputum?
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chronic bronchitis
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Which of the following would lead to anemic hypoxia?
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sickle-cell disease
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In which condition are the lungs infected with Mycobacterium and produce fibrous nodules around the bacteria, leading to progressive pulmonary fibrosis?
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tuberclosis
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Which malignancy originates in the lamina propria of the bronchi?
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adenocarcinoma
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Polio can sometimes damage the brainstem respiratory centers and result in which condition?
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Ondine’s curse
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Scuba divers breathe a nitrogen-oxygen mixture rather than pure compressed oxygen in order to avoid what condition?
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Oxygen toxicity
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Nitrogen bubbles can form in the blood and other tissues when a scuba diver ascends too rapidly, producing a syndrome called _________.
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decompression sickness
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The vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves carry afferent signals from peripheral chemoreceptors to a chemosensitive area in the ___________.
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medulla oblongata
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Mucus plays an important role in cleansing inhaled air. It is produced by __________ of the respiratory tract.
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goblet cells
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The blood transports more CO2 in the form of ___________ than in any other form.
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bicarbonate ions
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Among its other purposes, how is the Valsalva maneuver used?
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To aid in defecation and urination
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Blood banks dispose of blood that has low levels of bisphosphoglycerate. What would be the probable reason for doing so?
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Erythrocytes low in BPG do not unload O2 very well.
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Your breathing rate is 12 breaths/minute; your tidal volume is 500 mL; your vital capacity is 4700 mL; and your dead air space is 150 mL. Your alveolar ventilation rate is __________ mL/min.
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4,200
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Your breathing rate is 14 breaths/minute; spirometric measurements reveal your tidal volume is 500 mL; your inspiratory reserve volume is 3000 mL; and your expiratory reserve volume is 1,200 mL. Your vital capacity is __________ mL.
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4,700
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Respiratory arrest is an irreversible condition.
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False
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Breathing is controlled solely by the medulla oblongata and pons.
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False
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The rate of oxygen diffusion is affected by the pressure gradient of carbon dioxide.
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False
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Gas transport is the process of carrying gases from the alveoli to the systemic tissues and vice versa.
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True
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According to the Bohr effect, a low level of oxyhemoglobin enables the blood to transport more CO2.
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False
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Hemoglobin releases the same amount of oxygen to all the tissues regardless of variations in their metabolic rate.
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False
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Output from higher brain centers can bypass both the DRG and VRG and go directly to __________, which controls the accessory muscles of respiration.
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spinal integration centers
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Which of the following issues output to the VRG to adjust the respiratory rhythm?
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DRG
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Which center bears the primary responsibility for generating the respiratory rhythm, but is influenced by several other centers?
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VRG
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The pH of the cerebrospinal fluid is monitored by which of these brainstem centers?
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Central chemoreceptors
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Emotional states are integrated by the __________, which generates an output that creates such respiratory variations as laughing and crying.
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PRG
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If one inspires through their nose, which of the following answers has the correct order of structures the air would move through?
answer

Nares → Nasal Cavity → Vestibule → Nasopharynx → Oropharynx → Laryngopharynx → Larynx → Trachea → Primary Bronchus → Secondary Bronchus → Tertiary Bronchus → Bronchiole → Terminal Bronchiole → Respiratory Bronchiole → Alveolar Duct → Alveolar Sac → Alveolus
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Upon inspiration, what is the name of the air in the conducting division that is not available for gas exchange?
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anatomical dead space
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The anatomical dead space is greatest in which of the following situations?
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After swerving to narrowly avoid an accident while driving
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Air consists of about 78.6% nitrogen, 20.9% oxygen, 0.04% carbon dioxide, and 0.5% water. At sea level, (760 mmHg) what is the PCO2?
answer

0.3 mm Hg
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Which law states that the total atmospheric pressure is a sum of the contributions of the individual gases?
answer

Dalton’s
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Conditions around metabolically active tissues do what to the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve?
answer

shift it right
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Hypocapnia will lead to which of the following conditions?
answer

Hypoventilation due to alkalosis
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What is the least common but most dangerous form of lung cancer?
answer

Small-cell carcinoma

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