AP Human Geography Vocabulary Chapter 5 – Flashcards

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Accent
answer
a way of pronouncing words that indicates the place of origin of social background of the speaker
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Anatolian Hypothesis
answer
proposes that the dispersal of Proto-Indo-Europeans originated in Neolithic Anatolia
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Creole
answer
a person of mixed black or European descent, especially in the Caribbean
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Denglish
answer
a blend of German and English
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Dialect
answer
regional variation of a language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation
question
Ebonics
answer
dialect spoken by some African-Americans
question
Extinct Language
answer
language once used by people in daily activities but is no longer used
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Franglais
answer
a term used by French for English words that have entered the French language, a combination of Francais and Anglais
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Germanic Languages
answer
a branch of the Indo-European languages containing, English, German, Dutch, Afrikaans, Frisian, the Scandinavian languages, and Gothic
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Ideogram
answer
the system of writing used in China and other East Asian countries in which each symbol represents an idea or concept rather that a specific sound, as is the case with the letters in English
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Indo-European
answer
of or relating to the family of languages spoken over the greater part of Europe and Asia as far as northern India
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Isogloss
answer
boundary that separates regions in which different language uses predominate
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Nostratic Hypothesis
answer
a hypothesized family of languages ancestral to several of the established language families of Eurasia and northern Africa and including in some classifications as the Indo-European, Uralic, Altaic, Kartvelian, Dravidain, and Afro-Asiatic languages
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Isolated Language
answer
language that is unrelated to any other languages and therefore not attached to any family
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Kurgan Hypothesis
answer
the Proto-Indo-European language diffused from modern day Ukraine through conquest
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Language
answer
system of communication through the use of speech, collection of sounds and understood by a group of people to have the same meaning
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Language Branch
answer
collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago, differences are not as extensive or as old as with language families, and archaeological evidence can confirm that the branch derived from the same family
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Language Family
answer
collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history
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Language Group
answer
a collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in a relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary
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Lingua Franca
answer
a language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages
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Literary Tradition
answer
a language that is written as well as spoken
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Logogram
answer
a sign or character representing a word or phrase, such as those used in shorthand and some writing systems
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Monolingual
answer
speaking only one language
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Bilingual
answer
speaking two languages fluently
question
Multi-linguality
answer
the use of more than two languages
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National Language
answer
a language that has some connection with people and the territory they occupy
question
Nostratic
answer
a hypothetical phylum of languages of which the principal members are the Indo-European, Semitic, Altaic, and Dravidian families
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Official Language
answer
the language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents
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Orthography
answer
the conventional spelling system of a language
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Pidgin
answer
a form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca; used for communications among speakers of two different languages
question
Polyglot
answer
knowing or using several languages
question
Proto-Indo-European
answer
the unrecorded language from which all Indo-European languages are hypothesized to derive
question
Received Pronunciation
answer
the standard form of British English pronunciation, based on educated speech in southern England
question
Romance Languages
answer
group of related languages all derived from Vulgar Latin within historical times and forming a subgroup of the Italic branch of the Indo-European language family
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Slang
answer
a type of language that consists of words and phrases that are regarded as very informal, are more common in speech than writing, and are typically restricted to a particular context or group of people
question
Slavic Languages
answer
a branch of the Indo-European family of languages, usually divided into the East Slavic, West Slavic, and South Slavic
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Spanglish
answer
combination of Spanish and English, spoken by Hispanic Americans
question
Standard Language
answer
the form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications
question
Subfamilies
answer
a subdivision of a group
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Syntax
answer
the arrangement of words and phrases to create well-formed sentences in a language
question
Toponym
answer
a place name, especially one derived from a topographical feature
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Trade Language
answer
a restructured language used especially in commercial communication
question
Vernacular
answer
the language or dialect spoken by the ordinary people in a particular country or region
question
Vocabulary
answer
the body of words used in a particular language
question
Vulgar Latin
answer
informal Latin of classical times
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question
Accent
answer
a way of pronouncing words that indicates the place of origin of social background of the speaker
question
Anatolian Hypothesis
answer
proposes that the dispersal of Proto-Indo-Europeans originated in Neolithic Anatolia
question
Creole
answer
a person of mixed black or European descent, especially in the Caribbean
question
Denglish
answer
a blend of German and English
question
Dialect
answer
regional variation of a language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation
question
Ebonics
answer
dialect spoken by some African-Americans
question
Extinct Language
answer
language once used by people in daily activities but is no longer used
question
Franglais
answer
a term used by French for English words that have entered the French language, a combination of Francais and Anglais
question
Germanic Languages
answer
a branch of the Indo-European languages containing, English, German, Dutch, Afrikaans, Frisian, the Scandinavian languages, and Gothic
question
Ideogram
answer
the system of writing used in China and other East Asian countries in which each symbol represents an idea or concept rather that a specific sound, as is the case with the letters in English
question
Indo-European
answer
of or relating to the family of languages spoken over the greater part of Europe and Asia as far as northern India
question
Isogloss
answer
boundary that separates regions in which different language uses predominate
question
Nostratic Hypothesis
answer
a hypothesized family of languages ancestral to several of the established language families of Eurasia and northern Africa and including in some classifications as the Indo-European, Uralic, Altaic, Kartvelian, Dravidain, and Afro-Asiatic languages
question
Isolated Language
answer
language that is unrelated to any other languages and therefore not attached to any family
question
Kurgan Hypothesis
answer
the Proto-Indo-European language diffused from modern day Ukraine through conquest
question
Language
answer
system of communication through the use of speech, collection of sounds and understood by a group of people to have the same meaning
question
Language Branch
answer
collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago, differences are not as extensive or as old as with language families, and archaeological evidence can confirm that the branch derived from the same family
question
Language Family
answer
collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history
question
Language Group
answer
a collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in a relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary
question
Lingua Franca
answer
a language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages
question
Literary Tradition
answer
a language that is written as well as spoken
question
Logogram
answer
a sign or character representing a word or phrase, such as those used in shorthand and some writing systems
question
Monolingual
answer
speaking only one language
question
Bilingual
answer
speaking two languages fluently
question
Multi-linguality
answer
the use of more than two languages
question
National Language
answer
a language that has some connection with people and the territory they occupy
question
Nostratic
answer
a hypothetical phylum of languages of which the principal members are the Indo-European, Semitic, Altaic, and Dravidian families
question
Official Language
answer
the language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents
question
Orthography
answer
the conventional spelling system of a language
question
Pidgin
answer
a form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca; used for communications among speakers of two different languages
question
Polyglot
answer
knowing or using several languages
question
Proto-Indo-European
answer
the unrecorded language from which all Indo-European languages are hypothesized to derive
question
Received Pronunciation
answer
the standard form of British English pronunciation, based on educated speech in southern England
question
Romance Languages
answer
group of related languages all derived from Vulgar Latin within historical times and forming a subgroup of the Italic branch of the Indo-European language family
question
Slang
answer
a type of language that consists of words and phrases that are regarded as very informal, are more common in speech than writing, and are typically restricted to a particular context or group of people
question
Slavic Languages
answer
a branch of the Indo-European family of languages, usually divided into the East Slavic, West Slavic, and South Slavic
question
Spanglish
answer
combination of Spanish and English, spoken by Hispanic Americans
question
Standard Language
answer
the form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications
question
Subfamilies
answer
a subdivision of a group
question
Syntax
answer
the arrangement of words and phrases to create well-formed sentences in a language
question
Toponym
answer
a place name, especially one derived from a topographical feature
question
Trade Language
answer
a restructured language used especially in commercial communication
question
Vernacular
answer
the language or dialect spoken by the ordinary people in a particular country or region
question
Vocabulary
answer
the body of words used in a particular language
question
Vulgar Latin
answer
informal Latin of classical times
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