AP Human Geography Chapter 3 Notes and Vocabulary

Key Issue 1
Where do people migrate?

What do Geographers ask about migration?
Geographers document from where people migrate and to where they migrate. They also study the reason why people migrate.

What are the three main reasons people migrate?
Economic opportunity, Cultural Freedom, and Environmental Comfort.

Diffusion
The spreading of a feature or trend from one place to another over time.

Migration
A form of relocation diffusion involving a permanent move to a new location.

Emigration
Migration from a location.

Immigration
Migration to a new location.

Net Migration
The diffrence between the level of immigration and the level of emigration.

Net in-migration
When the number of immigrants exceed the number of emigrants.(The net migration is positive)

Net out-migration
When the number of emigrants exceed the number of immigrants. (The net migration is negative)

Mobility
All types of movement from one location to another.

Circulation
Short-term, repetitive, or cyclical movements that recur on a regular basis.

What traits do people bring to their new homes when they migrate?
Language, Religion, Ethnicity, and other cultural traits.

Ravensteins Laws can be oraganized into three diffrent groups which are?
The reasons why people move, The distance they typically move, and their characteristics.

Push Factor
A factor that induces people to leave their old residence.

Pull Factor
A factor that induces people to move to a new location.

What are the three major types of push and pull factors?
Economic, Cultural, and Environmental

Refugees
People who are forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of prosecution because of race, religon, nationality, and membership in a social group, or political opinion.

Floodplain
The areas subject to flooding during a given number of years according to historical trends.

Interventing Obstacle
An environmental or cultural feature of the landscape that hinders migration.

Ravensteins theory made two main points which are?
Most immigrants relocate a short distance and remain within the same country, and Long-distance immagrants to other countries head for major economic activity.

International Migration
Permanent movement from one country to another.

Internal Migration
Permanent movement within a particular country.

Internal migration can be divided into to two typed which are called?
Interregional, and Intraregional migration.

Interregional Migration
Permanent movement from one region of a country to another.

Intraregional Migration
Permanent movement within one region of a country.

International migration is futher divided into two groups called?
Forced and Voluntary migration.

Voluntary Migration
Permanent movement undertaken by choice.

Forced Migration
Permanent movement compelled usually by cultural factors

Migration Transition
A change in the migration pattern in a society that results from industrialization, population growth, and other social and economic changes that also produce the demographic transition.

Key Issue 2
Where are migrants distributed?

What percent of the worlds people are international immigrants?
9 percent

Which countries have net-out migration?
Asia, Latin America, and Africa.

Which countries have net-in migration?
North America, Europe, Oceania

Which country has the largest percent of immigrants?
United States of America.

Most immigrants in the first era of the United States immigration was from?
Europe, and Africa

Most immigrants in the secand era of the United States immigration was from?
Europe

Most immigrats in the third era of the United Sates immigration was from?
Asia and Latin America.

Among all the European countries which one sent the most immigrants to the United States?
Germany

Chain Migration
Migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there.

Key Isuue 3
Why do Migrants face Obstacles?

Quota Act
Made in 1921

National Origins Act
Made in 1924

Quota
The maimum limits of the number of people who could migrate to the United Sates from each country during a one year period.

For each person that had a native born person already living in the United States how many could migrate each year?
2 percent

The limited number of immigrants from the Eastern Hemisphere was?
150,000

Which continent did America admit the most immigrants?
Europe

The Quota system continued with minor modifications untill?
1960s

When was the Immigration Act passed?
1965

Quotas for individual countries where eliminated in what year?
1968

Brain Drain
Large scale emigration by talented people

Guest Workers
Citizens of poor countries who obtain jobs in Western Europe and the Middle East