AP Government Final

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What May government officials be often able to control by heavily relying on official sources?
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they control what journalists report and how they report it. this is referred to as spin
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The role of political parties in making office holders more accountable
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they make office holders more responsive. they pinpoint responsibility when things go wrong collectively and citizens can decide whether or not to retain the incumbent party as a result
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American Opinions regarding affirmative actions
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approve of diversity goals of affirmative action: disapprove of racial preferences
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What was the most effective tool of the civil rights movement?
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civil disobedience highlighted injustice and gained broader public sympathy
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Ordinary scrutiny
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is the assumption that the actions of elected bodies and officials are legal under the Constitution.
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What supreme court decision established a three part test for obscenity
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Miller v. California
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How does the constitution embody federalism?
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1. power is expressely given to the states as well as national government 2. states have important roles in shaping, choosing officials, and amending
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what started the populist movement
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Farmers in the south and west in the 1890s who were angry with american business practices that adversely affected them. their main grievances was bank and railroad ownership and wanted to force public ownership
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why does public opinion play a crucial role in democratic government
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for the people to rule, they must have their voice heard in the government. the wishes of the people can be heard in elections and polling surveys.
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which court case determined that political spending is protected speech under the first amendment?
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Buckley v. Valeo in 1976, furthered by Citizens united v. FEC
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compare american political parties with those in other countries
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america has the “purest” two party system. (since 1836). most western democracies have multi-party systems
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define civil liberties
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freedoms found primarily in the bill of rights, the enjoyment of which are protected from government interference
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why did james madison fear majority rule?
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he feared majority rule would undermind freedom and threaten the rights of the individual; common people were uneducated and incapable of deciding important matters and reserved that role for the elite. rule by the people was to be narrowly defined with barriers to majority rule
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during the first 60 yeras of its existence, the supreme court mainly reinforced what kind of civil liberty?
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they reinforced property rights and believed them to be certain and inalienable that governments were instituted to defend
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define prior restraint in reference to freedom of the press
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the government’s power to prevent publication of material to it objects, as opposed to punishment afterwards
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how does one amend the us constitution
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amendment is proposed by -a 2/3 vote of each house of congress or -a national convention called by at least 2/3 of the states ratified by -3/4 of states
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which is the fastest growing ethnic group in america
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hispanics
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how does the full faith and credit clause of the constitution refer to the states and what does it mean
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provides that states must respect the public acts, laws, and judicial rulings of other states. It obligates each state to recognize contracts etc. entered into by its citizens with citizens/legal bodies of other states also
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what does democracy mean in practice in large societies like the us?
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it must be in representative form, since millions of people cannot gather in open assembly
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what political self identification group has increased the most in the past thirty years
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women
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what does the 14th amendment say and protect
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no state “shall deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law, nor deny to any person its jurisdiction the equal protection of the law.” it protects equal protection of the law to all persons
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what is assured by the fourth amendment
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secures the rights of all persons from unreasonable searches and seizures and allows the granting of search warrants with reasonable evidence
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what is the most important factor in constructing an accurate poll or survey?
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large and diverse random sampling across a population
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when can the government engage in prior restraint and prevent the publication of material to which it objects
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only if there is a clear and present danger to national security
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define civil rights
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guarantees of equal treatments by te government officials regarding political rights, judicial systems, and public programs
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what does the due process clause in the 14th amendment mean
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prohibits depriving anyone from rights/ property without the due process of law, a guarantee against arbitrary or unfair government action
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what is the new deal coalition
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the informal electoral alliance of working class ethnic groups, Catholics, Jews, urban dwellers, racial minorities, and the South, that was the basis of the Democratic Party dominance of American politics from the New Deal to the early 1970’s.
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what is the most economically well-off interest group
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the republican national committee, raised 1 billion dollars in 2008
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news coverage of international events tends to be what?
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tends to portray america’s policy positively and allies in a not so positive light
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what must all washingtong lobbyists do?
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persuade members of congress to pass laws to benefit their particular interest group
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know the Mcculloch v maryland case
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instituted the neccessary and proper clause and said states cannot act in manners when the government has done so
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what was the major controversial issue over the executive branch at the constitutional convention
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they couldn’t agree on how the presidnet was elected so they decided on the electoral college
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what was the labor movement
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represented efforts by working people over the years to protect jobs, ensure decent wages and benefits, and guarantee safe work places. It forced the federal government to recognize the right of working people to form labor unions to represent them in negotiations with management.
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know mapp v ohio
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implemented the exclusionary rule, which stated that any evidence gained by police without a warrant will be thrown out. Evidence obtained in violation of the Fourth Amendment, which protects against “unreasonable searches and seizures,” may not be used in criminal prosecutions in state courts, as well as federal courts.
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define condiitons on aid
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states must spend federal money in restricted ways. they are conditional grants and the states are usually desperate for money
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define block grant
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money that can be used for a general thing (federal funds for states) not as strict as conditions on aid
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define mandate
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a federal mandate is a law passed by the federal government that the states must comply with. These laws may or may not be accompanied with federal aid.
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what does the responsible party theory assume
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assumes a political party will take a clear and distinct stance on issues and enact them as a policy while in office
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what is meant by checks and balances in the constitution
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constitutional principle that each separate branch of government has the power to hinder the actions of the other branches to prevent tyranny.
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what principle part of the political philosophy of jefferson and locke is embodied in the declaration of independence
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legitimate government can only be established by the people with the consent of the people and is created to protect inalienable rights. these rights cannot be taken away from them and they have the right to form a new government
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what were the articles of confederation
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the first constitution of the united states. put too much power in the states and none in the central government. ineffective
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what is an amicus curiae brief
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describes a legal brief in which individuals not party to a suit may have their views heard in court in hope of swaying the views of the judge. A group of people can express their opinion on an issue they want to be heard in court to try to sway the decision in their favor
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what does the term selective incorporation refer to in constitutional law
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the gradual incorportaions of the bill of rights to the states. it did not initially apply to the states but each amendment is now
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what is a categorial grant to a state
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federal aid to states that clearly specify what the money can be used for. little to no leeway on how money is spent
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what is the best way to establish momentum in a presidential election
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winning early primaries and caucuses. early winners get press attentions, financial contributions, and good standings in the polls
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what is the watchdog role of the media
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scrutinizing actions of government officials and make public aware thereof
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which amendment granted women the right to vote
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19th amendment
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what is the old fairness doctrine require
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requires broadcasters to present contrasting viewpoints of any controversial issue to the public. led to efforts at balance
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what is the americans ith disabilities act of 1990
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prohibits employment discrimination against the disabled and requires that reasonable efforts be made to make places of employment and public facilities accessible to them”.
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how would you best define american federalism
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United States federalism involves the sharing of power between the state and national governments. Both bodies have unique powers that are limited to each government. In addition, at times, the two governments share certain responsibilities and powers.
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what do pluralists believe
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pluralists believe in a number of cultural and ethnic groups that are presented and tolerated within a society
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what is the basic purpose of the bill of rights
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protect the rights of the people against tyrannies
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what amendment offers protections against double jeopardy, self-incrimination and due process of law
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5th amendment
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why is participation in the political process an important condition of popular sovereignity
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popular sovereignty’s basic principle is that the people are the ultimate source of government authority and the policies the government leaders make, policies must reflect wishes of people and without high participation the government is unable to determine the public’s opinion.
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according to opinion polls, what do most people name as their most important source of news?
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the television
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what is assured in the 8th amendment
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no excessive bail, fines, or cruel and unusual punishment
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republicanism as a doctrine that believes that
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political and personal liberty, unalienable rights that cannot be taken away, and government that protects from majority tyranny.
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what did james madison argue in federalist no 10
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he argued gainst factions, which are groups or parties that try to advance their own interests at the expense of the public good.
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what does the 10th amendment declare
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says that the powers not given to the federal government or prohibited to the States are reversed to the States or the people
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according to the founders, what is one of the fundamental inalienable rights that governments were instituted to protect
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life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness
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what is the supreme court’s view on affirmative action programs
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gender or race can be a factor but not the deciding factor
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in 1944 the supreme court declared that this race was a suspect class. what does thismean
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race is a suspect class which triggers strict scrutiny. this means the court assumes the law is unconstitutional until proven otherwise
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in 1972 the us supreme court denied president nixon’s request and what else?
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they denied his request for prior restraint regarding the pentagon papers, and forced him to give up docusments that sealed his fate in the watergate scandal
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compare ideologies of conservatism and liberalism
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Conservatives tend to put more emphasis on economic liberty and freedom from government interference. They believe that a free market offers the best road to economic efficiency and a decent society. Liberals stress the necessary role of government in ensuring equality of opportunity, regulating potentially damaging business practices, and providing safety nets for individuals unable to compete in the job market. Social liberals and conservatives differ on such issues as abortion, prayer in the schools, homosexuality, pornography, crime, and political dissent. Those who favor free choices and the rights of the accused are often said to be liberals, while those preferring government enforcement of order and traditional values are called conservatives.
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what is retrospective voting
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a form of election in which voters look back at the performance of a party in power and cast ballots on the basis of how well it did in office.
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what does the supremacy clause in the constutition declare
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laws and treaties of the constitution are the supreme law of the land and trump all staet and local doctrines
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what terms describes a durable change in the makeup of supporters for us political parties
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realignment
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what does the disturbance theory say
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a theory that interest groups originate with changes in the economic, social, or political environment that threaten the well-being of some segment of the population.
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what does the theory of electoral competition predict
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citizens’ preferences are organized along a single dimension and if parties purely seek votes, both parties will take positions exactly at the median of public opinion, that is, at the point where exactly one-half the voters are more liberal and one-half are more conservative.
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which part of the bill of rights became the first area of incorporation
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freedom of speech in Gitlow v. new york

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