AP Government Chapter 11 Vocab

those already holding office. In congressional elections, incumbents usually win.

officeholders may have helped constituents solve problems involving government and the bureaucracy.

bicameral legislature
a legislature divided into two houses. The us congress and all state legislatures except Nebraska’s are bicameral

House Rules Committee
An institution unique to the House of Representatives that reviews all bills (except revenue, budget, and appropriations bills) coming from a House committee before they go to the full House -most important committee in the house
-set conditions for the debate

a delay tactic used to try to prevent a vote on a bill (debating) only happen in the senate

Speaker of the House
-presiding officer and the most powerful member of the house. (can assign bills to committee, controlling floor debate, and appointing party members)

majority leader
serves as a major assistant to the speaker, helps plan the party’s legislative program, and directs floor debate

a senator or representative who helps the party leader stay informed about what party members are thinking, rounds up members when important votes are to be taken, and attempts to keep a nose count on.
-direct people on voting (all thing deal with voting)

minority leader
floor leader is the major spokesperson for the minority party and organizes opposition to the majority party.

standing committees
a permanent committee that deals with specific policy matters.

joint committees
made up of members of both houses of congress.

conference committees
temporary committee of members from both houses of congress, created to resolve the differences in the house and the senate versions of a bill. -it can also be called a compromise committee.

select committees
temporary committee that deals with specific policy matters. -formed to investigate a particular issue

legislative oversight
Congress’ monitoring of the bureaucracy and its administration of policy, performed mainly through hearings

committee chairs
are members of the majority party of each house chosen by party caucus.
-set agendas, assign members to subcommittees, and decide whether the committee will hold public hearings and which witnesses to call

seniority system
a rule that the majority member having the longest length of committee service is chosen as chairperson

informal groups of members of Congress sharing some interest or characteristic. Most are composed of members from both parties and from both houses.

a proposed law, drafted in legal language. Anyone can draft a bill, but only a member of the house of representatives or the senate can formally submit a bill for consideration

pork barrel
Federal projects, grants, and contracts available to state and local governments, businesses, colleges, and other institutions in a congressional district.

vice president
presiding officer of the senate.
-can only vote to break a tie and not debate.

president pro tempore
a senior member of the majority party chosen to preside in the absence of the senate president.
-majority floor leader of the senate is the most influential member of the senate and is also the spokesperson

personal staff
work directly for members of congress in washington, and their district offices in their home states.

committee staff
work for committees and subcommittees in congress, researching problems and analyzing information

distribution among the states based on the population of each state

the redistribution of congressional seats after the census determines changes in the population distribution among the states

congressional districting
the drawing of states legislatures of congressional districts for those states with more than one representative

drawing congressional districts to favor one political party or group over another

descriptive representation
The idea that an elected body should mirror demographically the population it represents
-if you’re poor and you want to represent for the poor

substantive representation
Theory of representation that says that anyone can represent any group (ex. a rich white guy can represent the interests of poor black people).

members of House and Senate are chosen by….
House:chosen from districts within each state
Senate: direct election of senators by the people in the state

Incumbency effect
-tendency for those already holding office to win reelections.
-effect tends to be stronger for the House and weaker for the Senate.

advantages of incumbents when running for reelection
-name recognition
-credit claiming
-franking: the privilege of sending official mail using the incumbent’s signature as postage.
-media exposure-incumbents are more likely to gain “free” publicity.

Term limits
-there are no term limits on the number of terms a member of congress may serve.

delegate representation
members vote based on the wishes of constituents, regardless of their own opinion
-vote based on constituents

trustee representation
after listening to constituents, members vote based on their own opinions
-vote based on own opinions

make public policy through the passage of legislation

constituent servant
help constituents with problems

politician/party member
work to support their political party platform and get reelected

Congress’s privileges
-allowances for offices in their home state or district
-travel allowances
-franking privilege allows members of congress to send mailings to constituents postage free
-immunity from arrest while conducting congressional business
-immunity from libel or slander suits for their speech debate in congress.

congress’s legislative powers: powers of make laws
-expressed: found in article 1 section 8
-implied: article 1, section 8, clause 18 (elastic clause)
-limitations: powers denied to congress in article 1, section 9 and tenth amendment.

non legislative powers: duties other than making laws
-selection of president or vice when there’s a tie in voting
-propose amendments
-impeach president and civil officers
-approve appointment and treaties
-investigate matter that relate to its legislative authority (legislative oversight)

the term bicameral, used to describe the us legislature, means that the legislature
-has two members, or legislative bodies

under the original US constitution, members of the senate, unlike members of the house, were elected by
-state legislatures

the purpose of a filibuster is to
-delay action in the legislative body

today, it takes____ members of the senate to cut off debate.

the typical member of congress is an
-middle-aged, white, protestant lawyer

members of congress can influence legislation by
-voting, conducting hearings, marking up bills in committee hearings, and offering amendments

if you wished to study the real leadership office in the senate, you would most likely focus on the
majority leader

a member of the senate has just been elected to a position that requires him to keep the majority leader informed about opinions of the other party members. he has just elected
-majority party whip

members of house of representative must have been a citizen of the united states for at least
7 years

members of the senate must have been a citizen of the US for at least
9 years

the type of committee most likely to deal with a bill near the end of its legislative process is
the conference committee

where is the real work of congress is done
in the committees in both houses

the staff agency that advises congress on the probable economic effect of different spending programs and the cost of proposed policies is the
congressional budget office (CBO)

a bill can be introduced in congress by
any member of congress

______, which handle bills in different policy areas, are the most important kind of committees

_____ is a congressional voting procedure in which members stand and are counted
division voting

the minimum number of members who must be presented for business to be conducted in congree

private bill
A legislative bill that deals only with specific, private, personal, or local matters.

roll call
A congressional voting procedure that consists of members answering “yea” or “nay” to their names.

pocket veto
A veto taking place when Congress adjourns within 10 days of submitting a bill to the president, who simply lets it die by neither signing nor vetoing it.

A provision attached to a bill – to which it may or may not be related – in order to secure its passage or defeat.
-when a bill has a lot of riders it become a Christmas tree bill

closed rule
An order from the House Rules Committee that sets a time limit on debate; forbids a bill from being amended on the floor

A procedure for terminating debate, especially filibusters, in the Senate.

pork barrel legislation
an attempt to provide funds and projects for the members’ home district or state

an attempt by members to gain support. (I’ll support your bill, if you support mine”

christmas tree bill
a bill with many riders