AP Gov Chapter 10 Exam Review

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Since the _____, governmental decision makers have relied heavily on public opinion polls.
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1930s
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Who is considered the founder of modern-day polling?
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George Gallup
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Unscientific surveys used to gauge public opinion on a variety of issues are known as what?
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straw polls
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Since 1952, researchers at the University of Michigan have conducted surveys to assess the political attitudes and behavior of the American electorate. By what name is this research known?
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National Election Studies
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Although campaign organizations generally deny conduction push polls, research indicates that push polls have indeed targeted political candidates. How many candidates have been targeted by this type of polling?
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more than three-quarters
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When were tracking polls introduced?
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1992
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Researchers refer to the unintended influence of the questioner on respondents during in-person interviews as what?
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interviewee bias
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Polls may be inaccurate for a number of reasons. Which of the following is one of these reasons?
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Polls are unable to measure the intensity of feelings about issues
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The _____ is a measure of accuracy of a public opinion poll
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margin of error
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What are \”feeling thermometer\” questions?
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questions that ask respondents how they feel about a particular issue by using a 0-100 scale
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What do Americans often have difficulty forming opinions about?
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policies that do not affect them personally
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Of the following, which is considered a demographic characteristic?
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gender
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In what are many American ideals, including hard work and personal responsibility, rooted?
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our nation’s Protestant heritage
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When is a child’s peer group most politically influential?
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when the child enters middle school or high school
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Which amendment removed the election of US senators from the hands of state legislators and placed it in the hands of citizens?
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the 17th Amendment
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\”All government rests on public opinion.\” Where is this sentiment expressed?
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in The Federalist Papers
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What reason does Andrew Kohut, president of the Pew Research Center, give to explain why public opinion polls have become critical players in national and international politics over the last three decades?
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the rise in the number of public opinion polls
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Why is Walter Lippmann credited with spurring the growth of public opinion polling?
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Lippmann wrote a book in which he observed that research on public opinion was far too limited, especially in light of it importance
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George Gallup undoubtedly had a vested interest in fostering reliance on public opinion polls. Why?
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he was a pollster
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Of the following statements about the 1936 Literary Digest poll, which predicted Roosevelt’s defeat for reelection, which is true?
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the poll oversampled the upper middle class and the wealthy
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In the context of public opinion polls, what is self-selection?
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a reference to the highly motivated respondents who decide for themselves whether or not to participate in surveys
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What is the purpose of a \”name recognition survey\”?
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to discover how many people have heard of a potential candidate for office
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What does the Pew Global Attitudes Survey assess?
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the attitudes toward global powers held by citizens in a sample of countries
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Why do reputable polling firms eschew push poll tactics?
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the intent of a push poll is to give respondents some negative or even untruthful information about a candidate’s opponent
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How does the textbook answer this question: why are traditional telephone polls becoming increasingly difficult to conduct?
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many people do not have landlines
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How are exit polls conducted?
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in person
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Which of the following statements about the shortcomings of polling is true?
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polls sometimes fail to measure intensity of feeling
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Two types of errors are common to polls. What are they?
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margin of error and sampling error
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Of the following public opinion poll topics, which is more likely than the others to be subject to a screening procedure?
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the federal budget
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How do political scientists define political socialization?
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as the process through which individuals acquire their political beliefs and values
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Refer to \”How Do Demographic Characteristics Affect Public Opinion?\” and indicate which is true about how age impacts views on whether or not the government should guarantee every citizen enough to eat and a place to sleep.
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Citizens between thirty and forty-nine years old fell the most strongly that every citizen has enough to eat and a place to sleep when compared to other age groups
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At what age do parents exercise the greatest influence on the political socialization of their children?
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from birth to age 5
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Gaps in the way that citizens view government, political leaders, and public policies may be the result of gender, race, age, party, and religion, which are collectively known as what?
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demographic characteristics
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Researchers have found that women are _____ similarly qualified men to think about running for office
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more reluctant than
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Why has the public become more of a critical player in national and international politics in the past three decades?
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because the number of polls regularly conducted and reported on is rising
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Which of the following statements best describes the interaction between public opinion and public policy in the US?
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the public’s views, registered through public opinion polls, can affect policy
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In 1787, John Jay wrote glowingly of the sameness of the American people. In Federalist No. 2, he wrote that we are \”one united people– a people descended from the same ancestors, speaking the same language, professing the same religion, attached to the same principles of government, very similar in manners and customs.\” Considering the sentiments expressed therein, which of these statements is Jay more likely to agree with?
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He would likely agree that reliance on public opinion polls is unnecessary for good governance
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In 1948, the Chicago Tribune wrongly predicted that R Thomas E. Dewey would beat incumbent President Harry S. Truman. Knowing what you know about the accuracy of various polls, what kind of poll would most likely have led the Chicago Tribune to make this erroneous prediction?
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a straw poll
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The Gallup organization predicts that Andrew Cuomo, the governor of New York, wins the 2016 presidential election with 61 percent of the popular vote. If Cuomo actually wins by capturing 49 percent of the popular vote, to which factor, more that the others, would you attribute the discrepancy, given what you know about how successful Gallup has been in making presidential predictions?
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the presence of a prominent third-party candidate
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A polling firm has been commissioned by the New York Times to assess public opinion about the performance of FEMA during the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy. What should the firm do first?
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determine the content and phrasing of the questions they want answered
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Which of the following is the clearest example of a push poll question?
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Would you approve of the candidate’s vote for the antipoverty bill if you knew that the candidate never read the legislation?
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You are in a political science class. There is an argument about how to define the target population for a survey to determine if families with children would use school vouchers to send their children to charter schools. From which of the following populations should you select a sample?
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parents of children under 18
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You are a pollster about to analyze polling data in order to reveal the data’s implications for public policy. Which of the following subgroups within the data would you, as a representative of a reputable polling organization, pay least attention to?
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stockholders versus shareholders
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In a random sample of 1,000 high school students, 29 percent indicated that they had read the Declaration of Independence at least once. If the margin of error is calculated to be 4 percent, which of the following statements is more likely than the others to be true?
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If the poll were conducted again, the percentage of those questioned who have read the Declaration of Independence would likely be between 25 and 33 percent
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As a pollster for Smart Polling, you are concerned about gauging the public’s attitudes about arms-control policy, because you believe that the public not only has little information on this complex topic but also has thought little about it. What procedure might you implement to decrease the inaccuracy of your polling data because of this lack of information?
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a screening procedure
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Leslie is a white, middle class mother of two, who works as a librarian in the public library system of a large city in the American West. She is 57 years old. Given her demographic profile and the information provided presented in Table 10.1 on differences in the political opinions of women and men, which of the following statements about her political opinions would pollsters expect to be true?
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Leslie believes that American military interventions are usually a bad idea
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In your American government class, you learn that most Americans’ level of knowledge about history and politics is quite low and is declining every year. You also learn that political knowledge and political participation have a reciprocal effect on one another. Which of the following statements aligns with the statements presented in this scenario?
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in the future, the degree of political participation in America is likely to go down
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During his campaign for reelection in 2012, Barack Obama deemphasized his work on health care reform. Which of the following reasons is the most plausible explanation for this decision, given what you know about the interaction between public opinion and policy and politics?
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deep divisions in public opinion on the issue were apparent
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In what way are George Gallup’s sentiments about the role of public opinion in governance similar to those of many of today’s political thinkers?
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they are similar in believing that leaders should have an appraisal of public opinion and consider it in reaching their decisions
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What did George Gallup mean when he said that public opinion polls \”speed up the process of democracy\”?
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that polls define issues of concern to the public
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Which of the following surveys is more likely than the others to generate self-selection error?
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a mail-in survey of retirement community members about the privatization of Medicare
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Why have the National Election Studies researchers conducted surveys before and after every mid-term and presidential election since 1952?
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to compile long-term studies of the electorate
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When conducting surveys, why is the wording of questions a central concern?
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how a question is worded can unintentionally skew results
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What is the difference between simple random sampling and stratified sampling?
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Stratified sampling combines random selection with predetermined weighting of a population’s demographic characteristics, whereas random sampling does not
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Web polls that allow anyone to weigh in on a topic are similar to which of the following?
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straw polls
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Which type of survey question is best suited to addressing concerns about errors in public opinion polling resulting from difficulty in measuring intensity?
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\”feeling thermometer\” questions
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Americans are likely to have the most difficulty forming opinions on which of the following topics?
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topics involving the European Central Bank and creditor nations
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When they become ten or eleven, what political opinion of Democratic presidents would you expect of the children raised in politically active Republican households?
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that they would be more skeptical of Democratic presidents than Republican ones
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Which of the following statements about the relationship between political knowledge and political participation is true?
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increases in political knowledge lead to increases in political participation
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Which of the following statements best reflects the Framers’ attitudes about public opinion?
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Public opinion is the best measure of the soundness of government policy

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