AP Euro Test #2: Italian Renaissance

question

What was the main difference between medieval education and Renaissance humanist education?
answer

medieval scholars studied classics to understand God; humanists studied classics to learn human nature and practical skills
question

What were some courses that were taught at humanist schools in the Renaissance?
answer

Roman history, Greek philosophy, and Latin grammar/rhetoric
question

What did humanists believe their method of teaching would impact future business, political, and military leaders?
answer

By making them more persuasive writers/speakers
question

What was the ideal woman in Castiligone’s “The Courtier”?
answer

she should be well-educated and charming, however they weren’t expected to seek fame like men did; they were expected to inspire poetry and art but rarely to create it
question

After Lorenzo the Magnificent’s untimely death in 1492, what did King Charles VIII of France do to act on Florence’s absence of a strong leader?
answer

Invaded Italy with the goal of conquering Naples, however Spain’s King Ferdinand soon contested the French claim to Naples
question

What incident inspired Machiavelli to write “The Prince”?
answer

the Habsburg-Valois Wars involving all the major Italian city-states which he witnessed himself
question

What were Machiavelli’s views on human nature? In a nutshell, what qualities must a successful prince possess?
answer

He had a pessimistic view on human nature; a successful ruler must be ruthless and pragmatic, always remembering that the ends justify the means
question

How did Renaissance artists receive compensation for their works?
answer

They would receive commissions from the Church, guilds, and wealthy families (like Medici)
question

What was the reason as to why Renaissance patrons would purchase and display artwork?
answer

It was a symbol of wealth and would promote their fame (important with the rise of humanism)
question

What were four main characteristics of Renaissance art?
answer

Perspective, chiaroscuro, pyramid configuration, and classical forms and Christian subjects
question

What was the goal of perspective?
answer

to open a “window on the world” and make an illusion of realism
question

What was the goal of chiaroscuro?
answer

it blended light and shade in order to give the illusion of volume
question

What was the goal of pyramid configuration?
answer

to use 3D pyramids to create symmetrical and balanced compositions (proportion)
question

What was the goal of classical forms and Christian subjects?
answer

to revive classical standards of beauty
question

Who was Christine de Pizan?
answer

The first female to earn a living as an author; wrote history of famous women to refute myths about women
question

Who was the “First Lady” of the Renaissance? What did she do?
answer

Isabelle d’Este; she was an art patron who proved that becoming a patron was the most socially-accepted role for a well-educated Renaissance woman
question

What was the primary difference between Italian humanists and Northern humanists?
answer

Northern humanists studied classical sources, however they sought to give humanism Christian content. They were committed to moral and institutional reform. They also wanted to combine the classical ideals of calmness and patience with the Christian virtues of piety, humility, and love. They believed that fusion would create the best code of conduct. Italian humanists, however, only studied classical texts and focused more on “now” than religion.
question

Why was the printing press so significant?
answer

Allowed freedom of expression, expanded information, and challenged the power of established authorities to control divergent views
question

What was the main difference between medieval kings and new monarchs in the Renaissance?
answer

Medieval kings received money from vassals, their vassals fought for them in exchange for land, kings relied on nobles for counsel, and kings shared power with church and were often subordinate to the pope. Monarchs, however, gained incoming by taxing towns, merchants, and peasants. Monarchs had professional armies paid for by the royal treasury, monarchs created a more centralized bureaucracy relying upon educated middle-class officials, and the monarchs negotiated a relationship with the Church.
question

How did Charles VII of France prosper the new monarchies?
answer

concluded 100 Years War and strengthened royal finances through taxes on salt and land. He also established the first royal army.
question

How did Louis XI of France prosper the new monarchies?
answer

He encouraged more economic growth by promoting new industries such as silk-weaving
question

How did Francis I of France prosper the new monarchies?
answer

Reached an agreement with the Church that allowed the king to nominate bishops, abbots, and other officials for the Church, meaning the French monarchy had control over the Church (humanistic view)
question

How did Henry VII prosper the new monarchies?
answer

created a special court known as the “Star Chamber” with no appeals, jury, or witnesses (to extend royal authority to local shires), and he encouraged the wool industry.
question

How did Henry VIII of England prosper the new monarchies?
answer

he declared the king the supreme head of the Church of England and dissolved the monasteries and took their land and wealth (humanistic movement)
question

How did the marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella in Spain prosper the new monarchies?
answer

made a dynastic union of two royal houses (powerful), they reduced the number of nobles in royal council, and the decreed Spain a Christian state and expelled Jews (the Inquisition) and Muslims (the Reconquista) to further this decision.

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member