Test Questions on Ap Euro Chapter 23

question

Thomas Malthus
answer

Author of Essay on the Principle of Population (1798) who claimed that population grows at an exponential rate while food production increases arithmetically, and thereby that, eventually, population growth would outpace food production.
question

David Ricardo
answer

“Iron Law of Wages”-wealthy English stockbroker and leading economist-coldly spelled out the pessimistic implications of Malthus’s thought-his iron law of wages stated that because of the pressure of pop. growth, wages would always sin to subsistence level. With more food came more children, neverending cycle.
question

Utilitarianism
answer

The theory, proposed by Jeremy Bentham in the late 1700s, that government actions are useful only if they promote the greatest good for the greatest number of people.
question

John Stewart Mill
answer

philosopher and economist who led the utilitarian movement in the 1800s; he came to question unregulated Capitalism; he said it was wrong for workers to lead deprived lives; he favored a cooperative system of agriculture and woman’s rights, including the right to vote; he wanted gov’t to get rid of large class divisions
question

Positivism
answer

A philosophy developed by the French count of Saint-Simon. Positivists believed that social and economic problems could be solved by the application of the scientific method, leading to continuous progress. Popular in France and Latin America. (616)
question

critics of middle class worldview
answer

question

Congress of Vienna
answer

Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon
question

Revolutions of 1820’s through 1830’s
answer

question

Klemens von Metternich
answer

This was Austria’s foreign minister who wanted a balance of power in an international equilibrium of political and military forces that would discourage aggression
question

French Revolution of 1830
answer

Second rebellion against Bourbon monarchy; essentially a liberal movement resulting in the creation of a bourgeois government under a moderate monarchy
question

Charles x
answer

set out to restore the absolute monarchy with the help of the ultraroyalists. Tried to repay nobles for lands lost during the revolution, but the liberals in teh legislative assemly opposed him. Eventually, he issued the July Ordinances.
question

Greek Independence
answer

Greece won independence from Turks in 1830, Both Serbia and Greece were being helped by Russia, and Russia shared Slavic language and Christian Orthodoxy with two territories
question

Louis Philippe
answer

“Citizen King” of France who favored measures that benefited the middle class.
question

Karl Marx
answer

German philosopher, economist, and revolutionary. With the help and support of Friedrich Engels he wrote The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (1867-1894). These works explain historical development in terms of the interaction of contradictory economic forces, form the basis of all communist theory, and have had a profound influence on the social sciences.
question

Hegel
answer

Was a German philosopher who wrote and influenced many others (like Marx) with his writings. He is most often characterized by his ‘three-step process’ of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis.
question

laissez faire
answer

idea that government should play as small a role as possible in economic affairs
question

Joseph Proudhon
answer

(1809-1865) Socialist. Thought industrialization had destroyed worker’s rights; that workers had the right to profit from their own labour. Argued for limited possession. Hated government.
question

Germaine de Stael on germany
answer

urged the French to embrace German Romanticism
question

Henri de Saint-Simon
answer

One of the most influential socialist thinkers was a nobleman, Count Henri de Saint-Simon. He was an early utopian socialist, who advocated industrial development. Saint-Simon also stressed in highly moralistic terms that every social institution ought to have its main goal improved for the poor. Saint-Simon’s stress on industry and science inspired middle-class industrialists and bankers such as the Pereire brothers, founders of the Crédit Mobilier. (p.764)
question

George Sand
answer

French femaile author of more than eighty novels who took a man’s name and dressed in male attire to protest the treatment of women
question

Eugene Delacroix
answer

French romantic painter, master of dramatic colorful scenes that stirred the emotions. Greatest romantic painters. Fascinated with remote and exotic subjects. Masterpiece: Liberty Leading the People
question

English Reform Bill of 1832
answer

An act of Parliament that changed the electoral system of England. It was passed in the House of Commons and introduced by Prime Minister Earl Grey. The bill was at first very controversial and it was proposed three times before it was passed due to the lack of approval by the House of Lords. However, once they were threatened by 10 liberals entering the House they changed their minds. It lowered the voting standards, allowing the middle class to have more of a say.
question

1848 Revolutions
answer

made by middle class liberals trying to appeal to the working class for additional pressure for •better representative gov’t •civil liberty •unregulated economic life
question

Battle of Peterloo
answer

(1819) This battle, occurred in Manchester, England. It was more of a massacre than a battle; people had gathered to discuss political reform and spread new ideas, and were killed by government troops.
question

Liberalism
answer

a political or social philosophy advocating the freedom of the individual, parliamentary systems of government, nonviolent modification of political, social, or economic institutions to assure unrestricted development in all spheres of human endeavor, and governmental guarantees of individual rights and civil liberties.
question

Carlsbad Decrees
answer

A set of restrictions on Germany introduced by Metternich in 1819 to end reform movements and rebellions.
question

Holy Alliance
answer

A league of European nations formed by the leaders of Russia, Austria, and Prussia after the Congress of Vienna
question

Corn Laws
answer

These laws forbade the importation of foreign grain without the prices in England rising substantially
question

Repeal of Corn Laws
answer

The repeal of the dreaded Corn Laws in 1846 was a major victory for classical liberalism and the middle class in England. It is a good example of the new power of the middle class in British politics. (Power that was gained in the Great Reform Bill of 1832).
question

Romanticism
answer

a movement in literature and art during the late 18th and early 19th centuries that celebrated nature rather than civilization
question

Nationalism
answer

love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it
question

Socialism
answer

a theory or system of social organization that advocates the vesting of the ownership and control of the means of production and distribution, of capital, land, etc., in the community as a whole.
question

Iron Law of Wages
answer

David Ricardo formulated the iron law of wages, which said that because of the pressure of population growth, wages would be just high enough to keep workers from starving. (p.761)
question

Rotten boroughs
answer

Depopulated areas of England that nevertheless sent representatives to Parliament.
question

Decembrists’ Revolt
answer

Opposition to Alexander. Young aristocrats who served in Napoleonic wars. Favored the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the abolition of serfdom.
question

Nicholas I
answer

(1825-1855) Russian Tsar that succeeced Alexander; he strengthened the secret police and the bureaucracy. He was also wiling to use Russian troops to crush revolutions, as he greatly feared them.
question

Ypsilanti
answer

leader of the revolution in Greece, used nationalism to inspire the Greeks, supported because the populous of Europe loved the Greek culture
question

Jeremy Bentham
answer

creator of Utilitarianism. Advocates “the greatest happiness for the greatest number.” Used the Pain-Pleasure litmus test, rather than ideology
question

Auguste Comte
answer

French philosopher remembered as the founder of positivism. Saw human history as 3 stages: theological, metaphysical and scientific. Founded “sociology.” Influenced Realpolitik
question

Adam Smith
answer

Economist who wrote Wealth of Nations; Laissez-Faire economics
question

Robert Owen
answer

This man both helped to lead the first national union in England and advocated the use of children in factories

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member