Medical Terminology Express – Chapter 8 (Urinary System)

dialysis
mechanical filtering process used to remove metabolic wast products from blood, draw off excess fluids, and regulate body chemistry when kidneys fail to function properly

electrolytes
solutions that conduct electricity, such as acids, bases, and salts

metabolism
sum of all physical and chemical changes that take place within an organism

pH
symbol for the measure of hydrogen ion concentration in a solution or the acidity r alkalinity of a substance

transurethral resection of the prostate
surgical procedure that removes part of an enlarged prostate via an instrument inserted through the urethra

TURP
transurethral resection of the prostate

cyst
bladder

vesic
bladder

glomerul
glomerulus

meat
opening, meatus

nephr
kidney

ren
kidney

pyel
renal pelvis

ur
urine, urinary tract

urin
urine, urinary tract

ureter
ureter

urethr
urethra

emia
blood condition

iasis
abnormal condition

lysis
separation, destruction, loosening

pathy
disease

pexy
fixation

ptosis
prolapse, downward displacement

tripsy
crushing

uria
urine

an
without, not

poly
many, much

supra
above, excessive, superior

azoturia
increase of nitrogen substance, especially urea, in urine

diuresis
increased formation and secretion of urine

dysuria
painful or difficult urination, due to urinary tract conditions, such as cystitis

edema
abnormal accumulation of fiulds in the cells, tissues, or other parts of the bodythat may be sings of kidney failure

end-stage renal disease (ESRD)
kindey disease that ha advanced to the point that the kidneys can no longer filter blood and eventually requires dialysis or renal transplantation, also called chronic renal failure (CRF)

ESRD
end-stage renal disease

enuresis
involuntary discharge of urine after the age at which bladder control should be established

hypospadias
abnormal congenital opening of the male uretha on the undersurface of the penis

interstitlial nephritis
pathological changes in the renal interstitial tissue that results in destruction of nephrons and severe impairment in renal function

nephrolithiasis
formation of stones, or calculi, in the kidney that results when substances that are normally dissolved in the urine solidify

renal hypertension
high blood pressure that results from kidney disease

uremia
elevated level of urea and other nitrogenous waster products in the blood, also called azotemia

urinary tract infection
infection of the kidney, ureters, or bladder by microoganism that either ascend from the urethra or that spread to the kidney from the bloodstream

UTI
urinary tract infection

Wilms tumor
malignant neoplasm of the kidney that occurs in young children before the age of 5, signs are hypertension, a palpable mass, pain, and hematuria

blood urea nitrogen
lab test that measures the amount of urea in the blood and demonstrates the kidneys ablity to filter urea from the blood

BUN
blood urea nitrogen

kidney, ureter, bladder
radiographic examination to determine the location, size, shape, and possible malformation of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder

KUB
kidney, ureter, bladder

pyelography
radiographic study of the kidney, ureters, and usually the bladder after injection of a contrst agent

intravenous pyelography
radiographic imaging in which a contrast medium is injected intravenously and serial x-ray flims are taken to provide visuualization of the entire urinary tract

IVP
intravenous pyelography

retrograde pyelography
radiographic imaging in which a contrast medium is introduced through a cystoscope directly into the bladder and ureters to provide detailed visualization of the urinary structures and also to locate urinary tract obstruction

RP
retrograde pyelography

renal scan
nuclear medicine imaging procedure that determines renal function and shape through measurement of a radioactive substance injected intravenously that concentates in the kidney

urinalysis
physical chemical and microscopic analysis of urine

UA
urinalysis

voiding cystourethrography
radiography of the bladder and urethra during the process of voiding urine after filling the bladder with a contrast medium

VCUG
voiding cystourethrography

catheterization
insertion of a catheter into a body cavity or organ to install a substance or to remove fliud, most commonly though the urethra into the bladder to withdrawl urine

cystoscopy
insertion of a rigid or flexible cystoscopy through the urethra to examine the bladder, obtain biopsies of tumors or other growths and remove polyps

lithotripsy
method of removing stones that crushes them into smaller pieces so they can be expelled in urine

extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy
use of sound wave vibration to break up stones in the kidney

ESWL
extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy

nephrolithotomy
surgical procedure that involves a small incision in the skin and insertion of an endoscope into the kidney to remove a renal calculus

renal transplantaion
organ transplant of a kidney in a patient with end-stage renal disease

antibiotics
treat bacterial infections of the urinary tract by acting on the bacterial membrane or one of its metabolic processes

antispasmodics
decrease spasms in the urethra and bladder by relaxing the smooth muscles lining their walls thus allowing normal emptying of the bladder

diuretics
block reabsorption of sodium by the kidneys, thereby increasing the amount of salt and water excreted in the urine

ARF
acute renal failure

BNO
bladder neck obstruction

cysto
cystoscopy

US
ultrasound

WBC
white blood cell